|Pollution Prevention at Shipyards|
A Northwest Industry Roundtable Report
Compiled by the Washington Department of Ecology
Continue to Appendix D: Contacts and Information Resources.
SURFACE PREPARATION, PAINT REMOVAL, SANDING AREAS Enclose, cover, or contain blasting and sanding areas to the maximum extent practical to prevent abrasives, dust and paint chips from reaching storm sewers or receiving water Use shrouded or vacuum-assisted tools that prevent abrasives, dust and paint chips from leaving immediate area being worked on (dustless sanders, vacuum blasting robots) Use blast media that does not contain pollutants (examples: garnet, steel, ultra-high-pressure water) Cover drains, trenches, and drainage channels to prevent entry of blasting debris to the system Prohibit uncontained blasting or sanding activities over open water Prohibit blasting or sanding activities during windy conditions that render containment ineffective Inspect and clean sediment traps to ensure the interception and retention of solids before entering the drainage system Vacuum or sweep accessible areas of the drydock to remove debris and spent sandblasting material before flooding Improve work area to reduce areas which are hard to clean: alter keel support layout, seal crevices, make surfaces smoother Segregate water that has come into contact with abrasives and paint chips from water that has not; treat separately Collect spent abrasives frequently and store in an enclosed, covered area from which it cannot escape or be rained upon Consider testing paint before removal to establish potential pollutant levels Establish objective measures of cleanliness that will need to be met before proceeding to next work process
PAINTING Enclose, cover or contain painting activities to the maximum extent practical to prevent overspray from reaching the receiving water Prohibit uncontained spray painting activities over open water Prohibit spray painting activities during windy conditions that render containment ineffective Mix paints and solvents in designated areas away from drains, ditches, piers and surface waters, preferably indoors or under a shed When painting from floats, paint should be in cans five gallons or smaller, with drip pans and drop cloths underneath Have absorbent and other cleanup items readily available for immediate cleanup of spills Allow empty paint cans to dry before disposal Keep paint and paint thinner away from traffic areas to avoid spills Recycle paint, paint thinner and solvents Train employees on proper painting and spraying techniques, and use effective spray equipment that delivers more paint to the target and less overspray Investigate and use non-pollutant bearing paints (hard epoxies,fluorinated polyurethanes, isothiazolone-containing)
PRESSURE WASHING AREAS Perform pressure washing only in designated areas where washwater containment can be effectively achieved Do not use detergents or additives in the pressure washwater Direct deck drainage to a collection system sump for settling and/or additional treatment Install diagonal trenches, or berms and sumps to contain and collect washwater at marine railways Use solid decking, gutters and sumps at lift platforms to contain and collect washwater Segregate stormwater from process water; consider using stormwater for applications that do not demand high cleanliness Educate the customer about the environmental consequences of paint choice
NON-DRYDOCK ACTIVITIES Hang tarpaulin from the boat, and/or from fixed or floating platforms to reduce pollutants transported by wind Pave or tarp surfaces under marine railways Clean railways before the incoming tide Haul vessels beyond the high tide zone before work begins or halt work during high tide Place plastic sheeting or tarpaulin underneath boats to contain and collect waste and spent materials, and clean and sweep regularly to remove debris Use appropriate plastic or tarpaulin barriers for containment when work is performed on a vessel in the water to prevent paint overspray from contacting stormwater or the receiving water Vacuum or sweep rather than hose debris from the dock
DRYDOCK MAINTENANCE Clean and maintain drydock on a regular basis to minimize the potential for pollutants in the stormwater runoff Vacuum or sweep accessible areas of the drydock to remove debris and spent sandblasting matenal before flooding If hosing must be used as a removal method, treat as pressure washwater Clean the remaining areas of the dock after a vessel has been removed and the dock raised Remove and properly dispose of floatable and other low-density waste (wood, plastic, insulations) DRYDOCK ACTIVITIES Use plastic barriers beneath the hull, between the hull and drydock walls for containment Use plastic barriers hung from the flying bridge of the drydock, from the bow or stem of the vessel, or from temporary structures for containment Weight the bottom edge of the containment tarpaulins or plastic sheeting during a light breeze Use plywood and/or plastic sheeting to cover open areas between decks when sandblasting Install tie rings or cleats, cable suspension systems, or scaffolding to make implementation containment easier
ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS Maintain an organized inventory of materials used in the maintenance shop Dispose of greasy rags, oil filters, air filters, batteries, spent coolant and degreasers properly Label and track the recycling of waste material (e.g., used oil, spent solvents, batteries) Drain oil filters before disposal or recycling Store cracked batteries in a non-leaking secondary container Promptly transfer used fluids to the proper container; do not leave full drip pans or other open containers around the shop. Empty and clean drip pans and containers Do not pour liquid waste down floor drains, sinks, or outdoor storm drain inlets Plug floor drains that are connected to the storm or sanitary sewer; if necessary, install a sump that is pumped regularly Inspect the maintenance area regularly for proper implementation of control measures Train employees on proper waste control and disposal procedures
SHIPBOARD WATER HANDLING Keep cooling water used aboard ships separate from sanitary wastes to minimize disposal costs for the sanitary wastes Keep cooling water from contact with spent abrasives and paint to avoid pollution of the receiving water Inspect connecting hoses for leaks Discharge sanitary wastes from the ship being repaired to the yard's sanitary system or dispose of by a commercial waste disposal company
MATERIALS HANDLING Store permanent tanks in a paved area surrounded by a dike system that provides sufficient containment for the larger of either 10 percent of the volume of all containers or 110 percent of the volume of the largest tank Maintain good integrity of all storage tanks Inspect storage tanks to detect potential leaks and perform preventive maintenance Inspect piping systems (pipes, pumps, flanges, couplings, hoses, valves) for failures or leaks Train employees on proper filling and transfer procedures Store containerized materials (fuels, paints, solvents) in a protected, secure location and away from drains Store reactive, ignitable, or flammable liquids in compliance with the local fire code Identify potentially hazardous materials, characteristics and use Control excessive purchasing, storage and handling of potentially hazardous materials Keep records to identify quantity, receipt date, service life, users, and disposal routes Secure and carefully monitor hazardous materials to prevent theft, vandalism and misuse of materials Train employees on proper storage, use, cleanup and disposal of materials Provide sufficient containment for outdoor storage areas for the larger of either 10 percent of the volume of all containers or 110 percent of the volume of the largest tank Use temporary containment where required by portable drip pans Use spill troughs for drums with taps Mix paints and solvents in designated areas away from drains, ditches, piers and surface waters
IF SPILLS OCCUR ... Stop the source of the spill immediately
Contain the liquid until cleanup is complete
Deploy oil containment booms if the spill may reach the water
Cover the spill with absorbent material
Keep the area well ventilated
Dispose of cleanup materials properly
Do not use emulsifier or dispersant
TRAINING Establish training progams for practices that prevent stormwater pollution Include stormwater pollution prevention training in new employee orientations Establish incentive programs of material rewards to encourage stormwater pollution prevention ideas and implementation. Provide prompt feedback Recognize successful practices and publicize them intemally (newsletters, posters, plaques) and externally (speaking engagements, press releases to industry journals and local media) Appoint a specific stormwater pollution prevention coordinator and task force to develop and implement a stormwater pollution prevention program. Keep records Conduct an annual program evaluation at the corporate level Establish quantifiable goals. Chart progress by individual, by unit and overall Incorporate stormwater pollution prevention accomplishments into annual job performance evaluations
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This report was developed with grant funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and was a joint project of the Business Assistance Programs in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, web: www.pprc.org