Pollution Prevention Northwest
Published by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

Fall 1998


Transportation & P2
dotEfficient Transportation: Clearing Roads and the Air
dotTransportation Resources
dotDiversifying the Transportation 'Habitat'
dotTest Your Street Smarts
dotBusiness Initiatives
dotAlternative Fuels
dotOn the Ground: Business Transportation Choices
dotPromoting Ridesharing
dotBike Commute Concierge

Other P2 News
dotP2 News
dotP2 Digest
dotP2 Information Resources
dotAbout this Newsletter

P2 Focus Transportation & P2

highways Motor vehicles account for at least half of U.S. air pollution, and the congestion they cause wastes time and money. Cars also are a source of water pollution. P2 efforts that focus only on industry are missing the bus. This issue of Pollution Prevention Northwest examines P2 approaches to transportation-related pollution through community design, business initiatives, and alternative fuels.


Efficient Transportation: Clearing Roads and the Air

By Fred Hansen
General Manager

Efficient and effective transportation systems are basic to the economic and environmental health of the Pacific Northwest. Our transportation systems must be able to serve the needs of industry and people — only today, but into the future. To do this, they must be responsive to growth and the changing needs of industry. At the same time, they must play a critical role in maintaining clean air and livability.

We can take some pride in what’s already been accomplished to reduce pollution. Northwest states and cities have effective plans in place to meet clean air standards. Emissions from cars and buses have been dramatically reduced with new pollution control equipment, vehicle testing programs and new fuels. For example, the buses at Tri-Met are emitting 90 percent fewer particulates and oxides of nitrogen than they did 10 years ago. We’re using "clean diesel," which has been reformulated to reduce sulfur by 90 percent.

More improvements are on the horizon. Every bus manufacturer has created a hybrid diesel-electric bus. These buses, which are now in the development/testing phase, will further reduce fuel consumption and emissions.

Oregon and Washington are both implementing programs that require employers to take an active role in encouraging their employees to use alternative transportation to work.

As a result of these programs, our air is significantly cleaner. Now the challenge is to keep it that way while continuing to meet the needs of a growing economy and growing workforce. Oregonians drive more than 25 billion miles a year. Without a change in habits, the state’s projected growth in population will mean at least a 30 percent increase in yearly auto travel over the next two decades.

But as long as cars and gasoline are relatively inexpensive, people will choose to do most of their traveling in cars. In the future, we will need both more transit and more highways. But it is important to realize that by investing in transit we will get more return from the road system. When we handle more commute trips with transit, we will free up road funds for targeted improvements to the freight system.

My notion of a transportation system doesn’t stop with highways, seaports, airports, buses and light rail. Providing the system that will serve our needs well into the next century means we must create a system that meshes land use planning, urban design and transportation planning together into a long range vision. Without the investment in planned development, the inevitable result will be a sprawling landscape of very expensive freeway and transit systems that are gridlocked in rush hours. People and goods will spend more and more time waiting on our roadways, it will take longer to get to work and market, it will consume more fuel, and air pollution and greenhouse gases will increase.

We need to educate policy makers and the public about the importance of land use planning, and we need to work with developers and citizens so they understand the choices and the impact of those choices on quality of life issues, including air pollution. We need new and innovative thinking about land use decisions.

The Portland area is a national example of how to make land use and transit planning work together. The region’s 2040 plan establishes a strict urban growth boundary. The plan calls for intensive development adjacent to transit, limits on commuter parking, investment in transit, and a balanced transportation strategy. The urban growth boundary will expand by only about 2 percent over the next 20 years. At the rate of Phoenix’s suburbanization, Portland’s 20-year land supply would be consumed in less than seven months.

There are indications that the plan is working. Between 1990 and 1996, Tri-Met’s ridership grew 20 percent faster than the growth in vehicle miles traveled, 41 percent faster than the growth in transit service and nearly 150 percent faster than the growth in population. But much more needs to be done.

It will take much more political will to maintain the 2040 vision against the intense pressure to develop. The Portland experience serves as a model on which to build. Now it is up to all of us to spread the vision of land use and transportation planning to Northwest policy makers, industry and the public. It is the most important pollution prevention measure we can implement.

Fred Hansen is general manager of Tri-Met, a public agency which provides transportation services in the Portland metropolitan area (http://www.trimet.org). He was EPA’s deputy administrator before arriving at Tri-Met. Previously, he was director of the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.


Transportation Resources

Community Design

"Creating Livable Streets" Handbook
A set of guidelines that resulted from a street design project in the Portland area aimed at integrating transportation and land use. Case studies are available.

Energy Outreach Center
Publications on community design and bicycle commuting

TransAct Library
Books, reports, papers, case studies and speeches on designing livable communities.

Metropolitan Planning
http://www.psrc.org (Puget Sound Regional Council)
http://www.metro.dst.or.us (Portland Metro)
Information about regional land use and transportation planning in the Northwest’s largest metropolitan regions.

Business Initiatives

Commute Trip Reduction
Services to help Washington employers plan transportation programs. Ask Helen OVanPoole for advice.

Business Commute Solutions
Services to help Portland-area businesses plan transportation programs.

Oregon Telecommute Web Site
Publications, training, consultations

Alternative Fuels

Clean Cities
Market development activities for alternative fuels. Partnerships are in place in the Puget Sound area, Portland, and the Rogue Valley.

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Data Center
News, information, reports, buyers’ guide, and refueling station maps.


Diversifying the Transportation ‘Habitat’

$915. Every person. Every year.

That is a recent estimate of how much congestion costs the Seattle area in wasted time and fuel, according to a national study published by the Texas Transportation Institute. For Portland, the figure is $600.

What is the source of the traffic congestion that delays freight shipments, makes employees late for work, and causes both air and water pollution? Numerous studies cite urban patterns that force automobile dependence by putting long distances between where people are and where they want or need to go.

Between 1970 and 1995, the amount of developed land in the Puget Sound area more than doubled, according to figures from the Washington Department of Transportation. Average trip lengths increased from 8.4 miles in 1983 to 9.5 miles in 1990. TTI estimates that Seattle’s congestion cost rose 89 percent between 1986 and 1994. Portland’s congestion cost rose more than 150 percent in that period. As driving increases, transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions nationally are projected to rise 1.6 percent per year through 2020. On the water side, impervious surfaces alter fish habitat by, for example, changing runoff patterns.

‘New Urbanism’ a Response to Sprawl

An article in World Watch magazine’s September 1998 issue likens sprawling land use patterns to a monoculture habitat where conditions are suitable for only one transportation species: the private car. The "new urbanism" is a community design approach that has arisen in response to sprawl. One aim is to "diversify" urban habitat so that individuals and businesses have more transportation choices.

In a sense, "new urbanism" is a resurrection of design principles that were used decades ago, before automobile use was widespread. A key principle of this approach is to put houses in proximity to employment, parks and shopping, so that walking, bicycling and transit are practical alternatives to cars.

In planning for future growth, the Portland area has adopted this line of thinking. The 50-year land use and transportation plan adopted by Metro incorporates "transit-oriented" community design policies similar to the "LUTRAQ" (Land Use, Transportation and Air Quality) plan put forward several years ago by Portland community organizations as an alternative to a proposed freeway in Washington County. Metro projects a 10 percent reduction in vehicle miles traveled per capita as a result of the policies.

Another important element of new urbanism is designing streets so they serve pedestrians and bicyclists, rather than serving only as high-speed funnels for cars. Narrow streets "calm" traffic, so that cars don’t create a fearful environment that discourages walking. Wide sidewalks and tree canopies create a pleasant walking environment. Streets are laid out in grid patterns that offer direct connections to transit stops and destinations.

Building design also plays a part. Homes are designed around a shared open space, and porches rather than garages front the street. Commercial buildings are on street fronts, rather than situated behind vast parking lots.

Northwest examples of such design are Fairview Village east of Portland and Northwest Landing south of Tacoma. The developments combine varying housing types, retail and job sites within walking distance, and pedestrian-oriented streets.

What are the projected results achieved by transit-oriented design? The LUTRAQ proposal estimated that transit-oriented community design policies would reduce congestion, measured in hours of delay, by 53 percent, compared to a 43 percent reduction achieved by the freeway alternative. Carbon dioxide emissions would fall 6.4 percent in the LUTRAQ alternative, but increase 1.6 percent in the freeway alternative, the analysis found.

Will the projections solidify into reduced pollution? Better community design may help urban areas "grow more gracefully" and new fuel technology promises to further clean up cars, but individual choices will be central to preventing transportation-related pollution, says Dennis McLerran, executive officer of the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency. "The greatest amount of water and air impacts comes from individual actions and the choices we make—the choice of cars we purchase, the choice to link trips, the choice to walk, the choice of whether to fertilize the lawn next to a stream," McLerran said. Changing behavior requires a sustained educational effort he said, but it can be done.

(To find out more, visit 1000 Friends of Oregon at http://www.friends.org, or the Congress for a New Urbanism, http://www.cnu.org)


Test Your Street Smarts

1. Which of the following cities had the highest annual congestion cost (wasted time and fuel) per capita?
     a. Los Angeles
     b. New York
     c. Seattle

2. How much CO2 do cars emit?
     a. 5 lbs./gallon
     b. 20 lbs./gallon
     c. It depends on the gasoline brand.

3. Which of the following can affect fish habitat?
     a. Crankcases
     b. CD players
     c. Pavement

4. What comes out of a fuel cell car’s tailpipe?
     a. Nitrogen oxides
     b. Water vapor
     c. Corn syrup

5. Which of the following makes streets pedestrian-friendly?
     a. Bus shelters
     b. Wide sidewalks
     c. Trees

Quiz Answers

1. It’s not what you’re thinking. Seattle’s per-capita congestion cost exceeds LA’s and NY’s. Source: TTI, http://mobility.tamu.edu/study/tables/table14.stm

2. It averages 20 pounds. Add another 4 pounds for production and refining emissions. Source: "Over Our Heads: A Local Look at Global Climate," Northwest Environment Watch.

3. Crankcases drip motor oil that is picked up by stormwater. Pavement alters flow patterns. CD players are not a problem, unless fish pick up on your musical tastes. Source: "The Car and the City," Northwest Environment Watch

4. Water vapor. You can drink it. Source: "The Clean Machine," Technology Review, April 1994

5. All of the above. Shelters strengthen the pedestrian/ transit link. Wide sidewalks and trees improve the walking environment. Source: Getting People Walking: Municipal Strategies to Increase Pedestrian Travel. Energy Outreach Center, Washington DOT.



Reducing single-occupancy vehicle commuter trips can help businesses deploy staff more effectively, reduce parking costs, and meet trip reduction requirements. Below are examples of how businesses are addressing employee transportation and helping to reduce car-related pollution.

A Shared Approach to Urban Mobility

No car salesmen. No insurance premiums. No tab fees. No repair bills.

Those are the advantages of riding the bus, right? Well, yes, but they’re also among the attractions of "car sharing," which offers the mobility advantages of automobiles while taking some of the sting out of the congestion and pollution problems they cause.

Here’s how it works: Members of a car sharing organization, who pay a fee to join, have access to a fleet of vehicles parked within walking distance of members’ homes. Cars are available on a reservation basis to members, who pay hourly and mileage charges that cover all operating costs, including insurance and maintenance.

The idea originated in Europe and is taking root in the U.S. and Canada. CarShare, Inc., which opened in Portland last March, is the first commercial car sharing enterprise in the nation. The company has seven vehicles, including a pickup truck, to serve its approximately 60 members. King County and the city of Seattle are planning to start a car sharing program next year. Car sharing cooperatives are active in Victoria and Vancouver, British Columbia.

Car sharing makes economic sense for people who drive less than 10,000 miles per year, according to CarShare President David Brook. The idea is appealing to people who can rely on transit, bicycling or walking for most of their transportation requirements, and have only occasional need for a car. Having the car sharing service available allows households to do without a second car or even dispense with car ownership entirely. In Munich, for example, one-fifth of car sharers sold their vehicles after joining. Nearly 40 percent joined a car sharing organization as an alternative to buying a car of their own.

There are environmental benefits as well. According to European studies, the economics of pay-as-you-drive encourages reduced auto use, which in turn cuts energy use and air emissions.

Another factor behind reduced auto use may be behavioral – not having a car in the driveway discourages wasteful auto use. If you have to reserve a car, then walk a few blocks to go get it, you quickly learn the merits of trip planning.

To find out more, visit: CarShare, http://www.carsharing-pdx.com
King County Metro, http://transit.metrokc.gov/travel_options/carshare.html.

To see a slide show about the environmental and mobility impacts of car sharing, visit http://www.bremen.de/info/agenda21/carfree/, and hit impacts on urban environment button.


Employer Incentive
Former Weyerhaeuser CEO Jack Creighton regularly rode employee shuttles. When his managers visited his office, he would ask them if they rode the shuttle to get there.



Alternative fuels are a strategy for reducing soot, NOX, CO2, air toxics, and other pollutants from individual, fleet and transit vehicles.

Natural Gas
Liquefied or compressed natural gas can fuel vehicles, either alone or in dual-fuel configurations with gasoline.
     Test results of Pierce Transit’s CNG bus fleet showed nitrogen oxide emissions about 50 percent below diesel. Capital costs were higher, but operating costs are approximately equal. The Rogue Valley Transportation District found that particulate emissions from its CNG buses were more than 90 percent below emissions from diesels. Federal tests comparing CNG and gasoline-powered cars showed substantially smaller benzene emissions from the CNG vehicles.
     Contact: Natural Gas Vehicles Web Site, http://www.ngv.org

Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicles (EVs) can be configured to run off batteries only, or as hybrids powered by both electricity and liquid fuels. Electric-assisted bicycles are another option.
     Portland General Electric has two demonstration EVs that run on lead-acid batteries. The vehicles can go 35 to 50 miles on a charge. At 5.1 cents per kilowatt-hour, full recharging costs 66 cents. Recharging from PGE’s system, a mix of hydro and thermal generating resources, results in a 97 percent cut in reactive hydrocarbon emissions and a 40 percent in carbon dioxide emissions. Environmental characteristics of EVs will vary depending on a utility’s power resource mix.
     Contact: Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, http://www.evaa.org.

Fuel Cells
Fuel cells generate electricity through the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.
     To test cost and performance, BC Transit is acquiring three prototype fuel cell buses from Ballard Power Systems, which has entered into an alliance with Ford and Daimler Benz to further develop the technology. Water vapor and heat are the only emissions. There may be indirect emissions, depending on the hydrogen’s source. Fuel cell buses emit about half the greenhouse gases of diesel buses, if hydrogen is extracted from natural gas, for example.
     Contact: Online Fuel Cell Information Center, http://www.fuelcells.org

Biodiesel is made from ethanol and plant oils. It can be used alone or blended with conventional diesel.
     JR Simplot Co. has put about 200,000 miles on a semi-tractor powered by a biodiesel blend. Intercity Transit in Olympia tested biodiesel in 1993 and noted improved performance. Cost was a barrier to further use, however. Biodiesel can bring sizable cuts in particulate emissions.
     Contact: Biofuels Information Center, http://www.biofuels.nrel.gov


What Do Trips Cost You?
How much does your commute cost and how much CO2 is emitted? Find out with the Commuter Calculator at http://www.iclei.org/games/comcalc.htm


On the Ground: Business Transportation Choices with Production, Employee Retention Benefits


computer ConneXt, Seattle: This software firm opened a state-of-the-art telework center that accommodates up to 150 employees in 14,000 square feet of office space. About 70 percent of the company’s 350 employees telework at least part-time. The telecommuting center, which enabled the fast-growing company to expand without having to add more office space, accommodates both in-office and teleworkers with flexible work space arrangements, such as sofas and stand-up work counters. Provident St. Vincent Medical Center, Portland: The hospital trained 13 medical transcriptionists to telework from home. As a result, the transcriptionists saved $30,000 to $46,000 in commuting costs, and last year eliminated more than 87,000 commuter miles. The hospital improved productivity without adding office space.

Buses, Pools, Legs

bus Orion Industries, Federal Way, Wash: The company, which trains the disabled and operates a machine shop, provides intensive ride-matching assistance and motivates employees with monthly $20 coupon prizes for workers who come to work via an alternative mode at least half the time. MetLife Capital, Bellevue, Wash: MetLife subsidizes transit, vehicle pools and vehicle pool parking. More than a third of employees arrive by bus or pool. The program is a recruiting draw in a competitive job market. Starbucks Headquarters, Seattle: Employees receive a $20 monthly subsidy for walking, cycling, carpooling or riding the bus to work. Bike storage and showers are provided. One goal is to cut future parking requirements.

Alternate Schedules

clock Boston Scientific Corporation, Redmond, Wash.: Eighty percent of employees work alternate schedules, such as the "9/80" two-week schedule in which nine hours are worked daily for nine days, then the 10th day is off. Production startup and shutdown costs have fallen, and absenteeism is down. (To find out more, visit Commuter Challenge, http://www.commuterchallenge.org)

Proximate Commuting

commuting Key Bank, Puget Sound: Home-to-work trip mileage was reduced by two-thirds for participants and carbon dioxide emissions were cut by 186 tons as a result of a "proximate commuting" demonstration carried out at 30 bank branches in 1995. Proximate commuting is a low-cost method for multi-site employers to facilitate placement and transfers of workers to job sites close to home. Employees who voluntarily took part in the demonstration saved an annual average of $2,626 each in commuting costs. Potential employer benefits include greater punctuality and less employee turnover. (To learn more, call ProximateCommute at 206-286-0816.)


Promoting Ridesharing: Five Pointers

1. Money Talks
Charge for parking, give rideshare incentives

2. Start Small
Let employees ease into ridesharing

3. Build Network
Set up hub for ride match information

4. Sell, Sell, Sell
Promote, then promote some more

5. Get Support
Make sure you have management buy-in.

Source: King County Employer Transportation Coordinator workshop: http://www.commuterchallenge.org/cc/diamond.html (hit library link)

Bike Commute Concierge

Washington Bicycle Commute Guide

Bikes on Transit Interactive Guide






P2 News
latest info on PPRC's projects, publications

Technology reviews are useful tools that help industry, technology assistance providers, researchers and research funders understand the technical characteristics, advantages, limitations, and economics of pollution prevention technologies. Adhesives are the focus of PPRC’s latest technology review series.
        Adhesives are used in the manufacture of thousands of everyday products, such as packaging, building materials, fabrics, carpeting, shoes, computers, furniture, transportation equipment, and stationery. Conventional adhesives use solvents as the carrier fluid, causing them to emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Alternatives to solvent-borne adhesives can greatly reduce or eliminate VOC and HAP emissions.
        The three alternatives covered in the technology reviews are waterborne, radiant-cured, and hot melts. The series can be viewed and downloaded from PPRC’s Web site at
http://www.pprc.org/pprc/p2tech/p2tech.html. Also available is the earlier series on cleaning technologies.
       Contact: Catherine Dickerson, cdickerson@pprc.org

A topical report listing P2 resources for hospitality sectors is available on the Web site at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/regional/hosptlty.html. The report lists Web sites and publications that detail P2 opportunities for specific sectors, such as lodging facilities, conference centers, golf courses, restaurants, and ecotourism businesses. General resources on lighting efficiency, building commissioning and water efficiency also are provided.
        Contact: Catherine Dickerson, cdickerson@pprc.org

A "living document" reviewing environmental issues and describing pollution prevention opportunities for the paint manufacturing industry is now available on the Web site. The document will be updated every 30 days with the input of industry experts, to ensure that the resource remains up to date and useful to industry and to technical assistance providers. The document, along with fact sheets, research project summaries, and industry links are available on the paint manufacturing "sector button" at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/painting.html. Contact: Chris Wiley, cwiley@pprc.org

Start Browsing with PPRC
You can make PPRC’s Web site your "startup page" when opening your Internet browser. Find out how at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/startup.html

Take the Official PPRC P2 Quiz question marks

Are you a Dean of Green, or a walking Superfund site? Take the Official PPRC P2 Quiz and find out. It’s a fun and informative way to review what you do and how much you know about pollution prevention in daily living. It’s on line at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/quiz.html


P2 Digest
news briefs from the Northwest and beyond


Industrial Services at One Stop

Northwest industries have a new one-stop information source for one-on-one technical support, financial support, software tools, and information about trainings, conferences and workshops.
        The ITAP – Industrial Technical Assistance Providers – is a voluntary association of technical, financial, educational and commercialization service providers from private and public entities across the Northwest dedicated to helping industry achieve energy, environmental, and economic competitiveness. ITAP members have expertise in energy efficiency, water conservation, P2, waste reduction, process technologies, marketing and commercialization, and ISO 9000 and 14000. A Resource Directory of participant services will be available soon, as well as Internet access to ITAP services. For more information, contact the ITAP help line at 1-800-872-3568.


VISION 2020 Awards

Nominations for VISION 2020’s 1999 awards are being sought by Dec. 31.
        VISION 2020 is a regional strategy for managing growth in the central Puget Sound region in ways that improve the movement of people and goods, protect the environment, promote a sustainable economy, and ensure a livable future for all communities.
        Nominations for 1999 awards are being accepted for innovative projects in King, Kitsap, Pierce and Snohomish counties, and may be developed by either the public or private sector, or through public/private partnerships.
        Winners of last year’s award include: ARCH, A Regional Coalition for Housing, for a project to create affordable housing in east King County; Foothills Trails, a 26-mile bicycle and pedestrian trail that will eventually connect to many other regional trail systems; and Community Transit’s New Merrill Creek Operations Base, a new bus transit base built on an industrial brownfield site in Snohomish County.
        For more information, contact Anne Avery at 206-587-4818, or visit the Puget Sound Regional Council at http://www.psrc.org.


Street Project Wins Award

Portland Metro recently won a 1998 "Going the Extra Mile" award from the Transportation Partners program for its Regional Street Design Project, which is intended to reduce automobile usage.
        The project includes street design guidelines that educate citizens, urban planners, and engineers about ways to make streets more user-friendly for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit. The guidelines integrate streets into overall community designs that reduce automobile dependence by making it easy to go places by walking, bicycling or taking transit.
        Transportation Partners is a cooperative effort by the Environmental Protection Agency, businesses, local governments and citizens organizations to develop mobility solutions that promote efficiency, reduce vehicle miles traveled and prevent pollution.
        For a copy of the street design handbook, call Metro at 503-797-1900. For information on the Transportation Partners program, visit http://www.epa.gov/tp.


Open House at Lighting Lab

The latest and greatest in lighting products will be presented at the Lighting Design Lab’s annual technology fair.
        The free fair will be held Dec. 9, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. at the lab, located at 400 E. Pine St., Suite 100, Seattle.
        Joel Loveland, associate professor of architecture and co-director of the University of Washington Regional Daylighting Laboratory, will be the keynote speaker. Northwest lighting manufacturers’ representatives will display energy efficient products and answer questions. Staff will present what was shown at European and North American lighting trade shows.
        The Lighting Design Lab helps lighting designers plan efficient lighting strategies for commercial applications.
        For information, call Michael Lane at 206-325-9760, or visit the lab at http://www.northwestlighting.com.


Screen Printing Videoconference

Are you looking for an educational program that can help printers save money and reduce compliance headaches? The "Using Screen Printing Technologies for Business and Environmental Success" videoconference can help. The videoconference will be broadcast on Dec. 2, and will discuss regulatory issues, case studies, digital pre-press technologies, and more.
        The course will be broadcast free at the University of Washington, 7:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. in Room 264 of Wilcox Hall. For information, call 206-543-4789. A videotape of the course will be available after broadcast through the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Call 503-229-5388 for information.
        To preview the agenda, contact Marilyn McDole at 608-262-0910 (mcdole@epd.engr.wisc.edu) or visit http://www.pneac.org/vc98/vc98home.html.


P2 Info
web sites, publications with useful information


Hazardous Waste Directory

The King County Yellow Book – Hazardous Waste Directory is available online and in print. The directory, written for businesses, describes what to do with different types of waste and lists vendors that will handle each waste.
        The directory also features assistance contacts, information about related laws and regulations, how to choose a hazardous waste vendor and more. As an added benefit, the online directory is updated monthly with revised vendor and waste handling information.
        See the online directory at http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb/index.htm. For a printed copy, call the Hazardous Waste Library at 206-689-3051.


Centers Help with Compliance

Northwest businesses and communities looking for help in complying with environmental regulations can turn to EPA’s on-line Compliance Assistance Centers.
        The centers offer a number of information services, including Web sites, E-mail groups, fax back systems and telephone hot lines. Businesses and governments can learn about pollution prevention approaches to achieving compliance.
        The centers and their Web addresses are:
        Printers National Environmental Assistance Center, http://www.pneac.org
        National Metal Finishing Resource Center, http://www.nmfrc.org
        National Agriculture Compliance Assistance Center, http://www.epa.gov/oeca/ag
        ChemAlliance, http://www.chemalliance.org
        Transportation Environmental Resource Center, http://www.transource.org
        Paints and Coatings Resource Center, http://www.paintcenter.org
        Local Government Environmental Assistance Network, http://www.lgean.org
        Printed Wiring Board Resource Center, http://www.pwbrc.org
        CCAR-GreenLink®, (automotive maintenance) http://www.ccar-greenlink.org
        You can get to all the centers by visiting http://www.epa.gov/oeca/mfcac.html


Resource for Educators

A new E-mail list targets Internet resources for environmental educators. To subscribe, send E-mail to: ee-internet-subscribe@eelink.net or visit the Web page with additional instructions at http://eelink.net/eeadmin/ee-internet.html.


P2 Barriers Examined

While anecdotal evidence suggests that P2 opportunities exist and that many have been pursued, there is also the perception that the pace of P2 is far too slow. To explore that issue and to shed light on barriers to P2 innovation, Resources For the Future conducted the research project "Searching for the Profit in Pollution Prevention: Case Studies in the Corporate Evaluation of Environmental Investment Opportunities."
        The research examines industrial P2 projects at three U.S. chemical firms that were in some way unsuccessful. While based on a limited sample, the findings don’t support the view that firms suffer from organizational weaknesses that make them unable to appreciate the financial benefits of P2 investments. Instead, the projects foundered because of significant unresolved technical difficulties, marketing challenges, and regulatory barriers.
        The paper proposes environmental policy reforms likely to promote P2 innovation.
        To learn more, call 202-328-5000 or see the report online at http://www.rff.org/proj_summaries/files/boyd_pollute_prevent.htm.



Editor & Designer: Jim DiPeso
Technical Editors: Madeline M. Sten
Web Version Format: Crispin Stutzman

Pollution Prevention Northwest is published bimonthly by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. To receive a free subscription (please specify electronic or hard copy), link to the newsletter order form or contact the PPRC, 1326 Fifth Ave.,
Suite 650, Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone: 206-352-2050; Fax: 206-352-2049
E-mail: office@pprc.org

About this Newsletter
Articles from this newsletter may be printed or distributed electronically only in their entirety with written permission from the PPRC. Please credit the author (if any), followed by "Pollution Prevention Northwest, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center."

About the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) is a nonprofit organization formed to identify opportunities and overcome obstacles to pollution prevention implementation in the Pacific Northwest. Headquartered in Seattle, Wash., the PPRC serves Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, and also takes part in projects with benefits beyond the Northwest.

Financial support for the PPRC is broad-based, with contributions from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Northwest states, The Boeing Company, Intel Corporation and others. The PPRC accepts environmental settlement moneys to further its work on pollution prevention.

Significant in-kind support has been provided by organizations such as: Hewlett-Packard Company, Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Seattle Research Center, Microsoft Corporation, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and the Fluke Corporation.

Staff: Madeline M. Sten, Executive Director; Catherine Dickerson, Technical Lead; Chris Wiley, Industry Outreach Lead; Jim DiPeso, Communications Director; Crispin Stutzman, Research Associate; Cathy Buller, Research Associate; Scott Allison, Business Manager; and Dana Heisler, Administrative Assistant.

Board of Directors: Richard Bach, President, Stoel Rives, Portland, Ore.; Rodney Brown, Vice President, Marten & Brown LLP, Seattle, Wash; Joan Cloonan, Vice President, J.R. Simplot Company, Boise, Idaho; William June, Secretary, On Point Communications Strategists, Portland, Ore.; Dana Rasmussen, Treasurer, Seattle, Wash.; Scott Forrest, Forrest Paint Co., Eugene, Ore; Johanna M. Munson, Alaska National Petroleum Reserve Representative, Anchorage, Alaska; T. Murray Rankin, Arvay Finlay, Victoria, British Columbia; Alan Schuyler, ARCO Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska; Kirk Thomson, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.; Randy Tucker, Oregon State Public Interest Research Group, Portland, Ore.; and Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard, Boise, Idaho.

© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, web: www.pprc.org