Pollution Prevention Northwest
Published by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

November/December 1997


Featured Topic: P2 Insights from Self-Contained Communities
dotCost Reduction Is P2 Driver in Arctic Oil Field
dotArmed Forces Employ P2 to Attack Waste
dotWaste Billing Gets Attention at Fort Lewis
dot'Pharmacies' Control Work Chemicals
dotPhotovoltaic System Reduces Fuel Consumption, Emissions at Remote Training Installation
dotShip Waste Reduction a 'Low-Tech' Program
dotInnovative P2 Solutions

Other P2 News
dot P2 News Briefs
dot P2 Digest
dot P2 Information Resources
dotAbout this Newsletter

P2 FocusP2 Insights from Self-Contained Communities

The pollution prevention experiences gained and lessons learned in self- contained communities, such as military facilities and remote industrial sites, provide valuable insights to business. While these facilities have cost and other special imperatives for preventing pollution, they haved faced familiar institutional and behavior issues in reducing waste and inefficiencies. This issue of P2 Northwest describes the lessons learned in self-contained communities that will be helpful to businesses undertaking P2.


Cost Reduction Is P2 Driver in Arctic Oil Field

Few industrial production sites anywhere are as remote as the oil fields of Alaska's North Slope. Their location hundreds of miles from the nearest sizable urban area has driven oil producers to create self-contained communities where all activities supporting oil production, ranging from clothes washing to power generation, must be carried out on site.

The isolation of these communities and the frigid climate create special management issues conducive to resolution through pollution prevention. Transportation, storage and disposal costs are extremely high-the cost of shipping one drum of hazardous waste to a licensed facility ranges up to $2,000. ARCO Alaska has found that incorporating pollution prevention into everyday business processes and detailed attention to training and motivation have been important in obtaining employee buy-in and the desired cost reductions-lessons applicable to businesses in any operating conditions.

ARCO Alaska operates the Kuparuk River Oil Field, which has been in operation since 1981 and produces approximately 300,000 barrels daily. The Kuparuk P2 program is rooted in aluminum and paper recycling efforts workers developed on their own in the late 1980s. With management support, those efforts evolved into a formal waste minimization and efficiency program that currently encompasses materials and inventory management, vehicle maintenance, chemicals substitution and reuse, improved production practices, and energy and water efficiency.

"The Kuparuk program is based on an inclusion principle: integrate projects into daily work processes and subject them to the same project planning criteria (efficiency, cost-benefit and value) on which other projects are judged," stated an ARCO paper on the Kuparuk P2 program delivered to the Third Petroleum Environmental Conference in 1996.

Pollution prevention's practical benefits are inculcated up front in training. "We emphasize that they don't have to deal with the waste if they don't generate it in the first place. They learn quickly," said Lisa Pekich, an ARCO environmental coordinator.

The company's environmental staff ensures that the P2 messages stick, by being visible and recognizing good ideas through reward programs. Pekich said communication of ideas is enhanced in a 24-hour work camp, where employees interact with co-workers both during and after their shifts, a social structure conducive to informal "shop talk" conversations that bring forth testable ideas.

Following are some elements of the Kuparuk P2 program:

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT — Requests to order chemicals that have not been used before are screened by environmental, health and safety staff, which can veto such requests. To reduce the high costs of transporting materials to the Arctic and storing them in heated space, materials are purchased in bulk and in reusable containers. A simple grinder cuts unwieldy freight packaging bands into pieces usable by scrap metal dealers, saving $5,000 annually.

VEHICLE MAINTENANCE — The Kuparuk fleet comprises more than 500 light and heavy vehicles, along with 370 pieces of non-mobile support equipment. Lubrication oil and antifreeze is recycled. A solvent parts washer was replaced with a hot-water washer. Disposable rags were replaced with a rag washing service, which eliminated 8,000 pounds of waste per year. The fleet was retrofitted with reusable oil filters, which brought a side benefit: in washing the filters, repair personnel have been able to spot metal particles that are telltale signs that parts are wearing out. Quick response to repair needs saved $45,000 in a few months.

OFFICE ACTIVITIES — The company phone directory is distributed electronically to save paper. Laser printer toner cartridges are reconditioned up to 17 times, which has saved $13,000 annually since 1992. Each reconditioning avoids 2.5 pounds of solid waste.


Armed Forces Employ P2 to Attack Waste

In the scale of their industrial activities and environmental impacts, military facilities are like small cities. Setting military "cities" apart from nearby civilian communities, which are made up of disparate business sectors pursuing their own economic agendas, is their defense mission and command structure.

From a pollution prevention standpoint, that offers great leverage. Incorporation of P2 into the defense mission is putting in play the Defense Department's resources toward resolving pollution prevention issues and gaining practical experience with P2 technologies and practices that will benefit civilian communities.

Funding constraints and the need to squeeze out inefficiencies are driving the Defense Department toward integrating P2 into its mission. "It's a simple concept: pollution is waste and waste is wasted money," Sherri Goodman, deputy undersecretary of defense for environmental security, said at a a joint services P2 conference last August. Another driver is Executive Order 12856, issued in 1993, which directs federal agencies to comply with the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know and Pollution Prevention Acts.

P2 provides the Defense Department with six benefits, Goodman said: 1) better service quality, 2) superior operational capability, 3) better access to new technologies, 4) more efficient use of materials and energy, 5) reduced liabilities, and 6) lower life-cycle costs. The next challenge, Goodman said, is cutting greenhouse gas emissions through resource efficiency. Defense facilities consume 1.5 percent of all energy used in the U.S.

Is the military getting results? In fiscal year 1995, the department spent $284 million on P2, in order to reduce ozone-depleting chemicals, hazardous waste generation, and emissions reportable under the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). The Defense Department estimates that P2 can be given one-third to two-thirds of the credit for the 36 percent reduction between 1994 and 1995 in TRI releases at 92 U.S. facilities that met TRI threshholds.

In integrating P2, there are operational and cost issues to overcome that are relevant to business. One is integrating P2 into design, in order to minimize environmental costs through the life cycle of, for example, a ship. Much of the existing stock of aircraft, ships and other hardware, however, will remain in service well into the next century. Eighty percent of the military's hazardous waste originates from maintenance and overhaul activities, such as paint stripping, painting, cleaning and metal finishing. The immediate challenge is finding alternative means of maintaining existing equipment, through, for example, revised procedures, chemical substitution, and materials management. There has been a great deal of work to solve these problems, and a wealth of information is available.

Following are stories describing experiences and lessons learned in incorporating P2 into the activities of Northwest defense facilities.

dotMilitary P2 on the Web

Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange (DENIX)

Public section has searchable databases on pollution prevention programs, research and publications. http://denix.cecer.army.mil

Joint Service Pollution Prevention Technical Library

Contains P2 handbook with off-the-shelf P2 technologies and practices, and environmental products catalog. http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/

Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence

Contains P2 guides, fact sheets, newsletters, and a technology transfer package. http://www.afcee.brooks.af.mil


Waste Billing Gets Attention at Fort Lewis

Communicating the costs of waste and providing pollution prevention alternatives to avoid those costs have been significant in helping Fort Lewis reduce per-soldier hazardous waste generation between 1991 and 1996, despite a change in mission that brought tanks and other heavy vehicles, each carrying up to 500 gallons of fuel and associated maintenance requirements, to the base two years ago. Earlier this year, Fort Lewis received the Washington Department of Ecology's Environmental Excellence Award.

Susan Schieche, air quality program manager, said "people are more likely to comply with an environmental requirement if they understand the requirement and the consequences of non-compliance."

The base covers more than 86,000 acres and includes more than 4,500 buildings, 3,000 vehicles and 1,500 pieces of support equipment. Fort Lewis monitors about 800 waste streams and tracks 7,343 hazardous products.

One of the tools that got the attention of base work units is "bill back"-units are charged for hazardous waste disposal costs, which formerly were absorbed by the base. Disposal volume fell nearly a third in 1996, partly as a result of bill back. Another effective change was a "one-stop" hazardous materials service, which simplified handling for work units and provided for rigorous tracking.

The P2 program operates under the premise that waste is a sign of inefficiency, waste can be identified and measured, and steps can be taken to reduce it. The P2 program's goals are to reduce operating costs, improve readiness, protect public health and the environment, and reduce liabilities. Since 1991, Fort Lewis has implemented more than 140 P2 programs, among them simple measures such as providing vehicle drip pans, spill kits, and storage cabinets for hazardous materials. In 1995 and 1996, P2 innovations saved the post more than $2 million. Significant reductions between 1991 and 1996 include:

TRI: Emissions of 18 Toxic Release Inventory chemicals decreased from 624,000 pounds to 58,000 pounds.
DANGEROUS WASTE: Generation of extremely hazardous waste fell from 154,000 pounds to 30,000 pounds.
SOLVENT WASTE:Disposal of parts washer waste solvent fell 87 percent by extending the frequency of washer servicing. P2-related annual cost savings include:
ENERGY: $599,000 from a base-wide energy efficiency project that includes retrofitting with efficient lights and motors.
PAINT BOOTHS: $236,000 from converting to dry paint booth filters.
PAINT GUNS: $200,000 from converting to high-volume, low-pressure paint guns
DRUM REUSE: $293,000 from equipment allowing reuse of chemical drums.
(This article is an adaptation of a story that appeared in the Nov. 14, 1997 issue of the Northwest Guardian, a base newspaper.)


'Pharmacies' Control Work Chemicals

Getting better control over materials used in work processes is an important element in any pollution prevention strategy. A technique that the military services have begun implementing at their major facilities is the hazardous materials "pharmacy."

The idea is to establish life-cycle control over work process chemicals, and eliminate the waste that takes place when control over the acquisition, use and post-use handling of materials is diffused. Like pharmacies that dispense prescription medicine, military hazardous materials pharmacies provide that such materials may be obtained only through a designated facility. Also:

• Manuals specify which materials may be used for specific work processes.
• Unused materials must be returned to the pharmacy for redistribution to other work teams.
• Accounting systems track materials from the time they are authorized through return, reuse, reclamation and disposal.
Among the benefits of dispensing hazardous materials through pharmacies is matching types and quantities of materials to users' needs, which in turn avoids unnecessary stockpiling. Furthermore, by controlling distribution through pharmacies, there is a built-in checkpoint at which materials requests can be filled with less hazardous substitutes. Additionally, costs of carrying inventory and disposing of unused materials with expired shelf lives are reduced. In fiscal year 1995, for example, the Navy saved more than $20 million through use of pharmacies.

Among the Northwest military facilities which have implemented pharmacies are the Air Force bases Elmendorf and Elieson in Alaska, and McChord and Fairchild in Washington. McChord implemented its pharmacy in 1994 and shortly thereafter experienced a 50 percent reduction in hazardous materials stockpiled around the base. Data from 1995 shows that review of hazardous material requests and more thorough accounting resulted in a 20 percent decrease in items purchased and $100,000 in cost savings. In particular, the pharmacy helped reduce methyl ethyl ketone usage by more than half.

Among naval facilities, Trident Refit Facility saved $250,000 in the first year of operating a pharmacy. Hazardous waste generated by shelf life expirations and shop person-hours involved in hazardous materials management both fell by 90 percent.

Subase Bangor, which houses TRF, pioneered a reclamation store a decade ago to facilitate re-use of hazardous materials that otherwise would be disposed of. More than $100,000 worth of materials is re-issued per year, saving more than $1 million in disposal costs annually.

(For a summary of the Navy's pharmacy program, visit the web site http://denix.cecer.army.mil/denix/Public/News/NAVSUP424/Chrimp/Executive/chrimps.html.)


Photovoltaic System Reduces Fuel Consumption, Emissions at Remote Training Installation

High energy and maintenance costs, and the need for reliable power drove Mountain Home Air Force Base to install the Air Force's largest stand-alone solar photovoltaic power unit at a remote training facility in the Idaho desert.

The photovoltaic cells, activated in 1995, serve the Grasmere site, used by the 366th Range Squadron for electronic warfare training of air combat crews. The pollution prevention benefits of the solar unit are substantial. Grasmere used to be powered completely by diesel-fueled generators. With solar serving more than 70 percent of the facility's power load, more than 90,000 gallons of diesel fuel per year are no longer burned, avoiding the emission of three tons of carbon dioxide, 150 pounds of nitrogen oxides, 30 pounds of carbon monoxide, and nearly 10 pounds of sulfur oxides and particulate matter each day.

But the P2 benefits were not the primary drivers for installing solar. Operating and maintaining the facility was costly and time-consuming, because of its remote location. Grasmere is nearly 6,000 feet in elevation, and getting there requires a two-hour drive over rural roads that often are hazardous when winter weather strikes. Along with other supplies, fuel had to be trucked in because the nearest power line is 41 miles away.

Reliability was another issue. The diesel generators had to be checked several times a day, and during winter, the site was shut down because of concern that it was not accessible for service and repair visits. To resolve the maintenance and reliability problems, the base and the Idaho Power Co. teamed up to install the solar cells and battery storage system. Idaho Power also maintains the site.

The operational benefits of solar power include reduced fuel consumption, reduced time and travel costs, and greater site utility. Grasmere can now be used in the winter. Furthermore, the solar system produces higher quality power than the diesel generators, which had a tendency to produce frequency fluctuations that impaired the operation of Grasmere's sensitive electronic equipment.

Mountain Home plans to phase out the remaining diesel generation altogether by replacing it with two wind turbines and a propane generator, which also will eliminate fuel spill risks.

(For more information, contact Mountain Home Air Force Base, 208-828-6392.)


Ship Waste Reduction a 'Low-Tech' Program

Ships at sea are as self-contained a community as is likely to be found anywhere. Hazardous wastes produced from shipboard maintenance and other operations have no place to go until the vessels tie up at their home ports-and therein lies the problem the Navy hopes to solve through its "P2 Afloat" program.

A survey of home ports found that 50 percent to 70 percent of their hazardous wastes originate from ships off-loading their cargos of paint wastes, spent petroleum products, batteries and other hazardous refuse. The P2 Afloat program was developed to reduce these wastes at the source, help the home ports comply with a federal mandate to reduce hazardous waste generation 50 percent by 1999, free up operating funds for other shipboard uses, and improve health and safety conditions aboard ships.

P2 Afloat was demonstrated aboard nine ships, including the aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson, which formerly was homeported in Alameda, Calif. and is now homeported in Bremerton, Wash. The Navy plans to expand P2 Afloat to the entire fleet between 1999 and 2002.

In a briefing document on the demonstrations, the Navy concluded that P2 Afloat yielded a high return for a low initial cost and has helped mitigate fleet hazardous materials management problems. "This is a very low-tech program. It's a matter of working smarter," said Mary Jo Bieberich, head of the pollution prevention branch for the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Carderock, Md.

Aboard the Carl Vinson, a suite of 19 pollution prevention projects was implemented in 1996, including aqueous parts washers, HVLP paint guns, a glycol recycler, hydraulics fluid purifiers and paint brush cleaners. The ship recycles nearly 79 percent of its hazardous wastes and has the lowest disposal costs of any Pacific Fleet carrier.

To be considered for P2 Afloat, projects must have a payback period of three years or less. A number of the projects that involved changes in maintenance procedures had payback periods of less than a year, Bieberich said. One of the most dramatic was a simple holder that suspends used paint brushes in solvent, which replaced the former practice of throwing the brushes away. The payback period was one month. Other projects with short returns on investment are recycling hydraulic fluids and anti-freeze.

Communications are key to ensuring that new work practices and procedures are implemented properly, Bieberich said. Other factors important for success include support from the top, supervising equipment installation, placing P2 equipment at strategic locations, integrated involvement by everyone aboard, and good data management.

(For a more information, visit the web site http://denix.cecer.army.mil/denix/Public/News/NAVSUP424/Afloat/Program-brief/progbrief.html.)


Innovative P2 Solutions

Cheap Paste Cuts Waste

Fort Wainwright reduces disposal of water-contaminated fuel by measuring water levels with an inexpensive paste. Fuel containing less than 5 percent water is re-sold instead of disposed of as hazardous waste. About 85 percent of the tested fuel is re-sold. This saved the base $5,000 in disposal fees in 1995.

Insect Air Strike Replaces Spray

Fairchild Air Force Base substituted 300,000 hungry insects for herbicide sprays to control noxious weeds. A total of 1,200 acres, including 300 acres of wetlands, were taken off a weed spraying program. Herbicide use was cut 40 percent. Future cost savings are projected at $30,000 annually.

Fuel Cells Do Double Duty

Alaska's Army National Guard is installing fuel cells that will provide all of the Anchorage armory's power needs. Byproduct heat will permit boiler use to be reduced 85 percent, resulting in a 75 percent decrease in air emissions.

Navy Bases Clean Up

Studies show Navy shore facilities nationwide could save $75 million by having cleaning rags laundered. The cost of purchase and disposal as hazardous waste averages 29.6 cents per rag. The cost of renting through a cleaning service averages only 4.8 cents per rag. Subase Bangor, Trident Refit Facility, NAS Whidbey Island, Naval Station Everett, and NUWC Keyport use cleaning services.

Waving Wand Saves Money

Wash wands have cut aircraft washwater usage by 78 percent at McChord Air Force Base, saving $750,000 per year in disposal costs. The wands spray low volumes at high pressure and clean without damaging surface coatings.


P2 News
latest info on PPRC's projects, publications

dot SHIPYARDS NEWEST WEB SITE SECTOR BUTTON — Shipbuilding and ship repair is the newest industry sector "button" on PPRC's Web site, and it offers shipyards a wealth of information that will assist them in planning and implementing pollution prevention projects that reduce waste and save money. The sector button is available at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/ship.html.

Below is a list of resources available on the shipbuilding sector button:

• Roundtable Report
• Fact Sheets
• Research Projects Database
• Industry Links

dot OREGON SHIPYARDS ROUNDTABLE — On Nov. 10, PPRC held an industry roundtable for boat and ship repair facilities on the Oregon coast. More than one dozen representatives of the industry took part in discussions about pollution prevention projects and Best Management Practices. A report will be produced and eventually posted on the Web site's shipbuilding sector button. For more information, contact Chris Montovino (cmontovino@pprc.org).

dot REGIONAL NETWORK — Additional sector buttons will be posted on the Web site as part of the Regional Pollution Prevention Network that PPRC is coordinating. The goal of the network is to facilitate information sharing among technical assistance providers throughout the Northwest. (More details about the Regional Network will be published in P2 Northwest early next year.) For more information, contact Chris Montovino (cmontovino@pprc.org).

dot METAL PRODUCTS BREAKFASTS — With the support of The Boeing Co., PPRC is hosting a series of monthly breakfast meetings for representatives of the metal fabrication and metal finishing industries in the Puget Sound area. The meetings are informal forums for the exchange of pollution prevention ideas and for industry to educate industry. For more information, contact Chris Wiley (cwiley@pprc.org).

dot WORKBOOKS — The Metal Fabrication Compliance and Pollution Prevention Workbook is in the distribution process, and will be available on the Web site's metals sector button. A wood finishing workbook is being drafted.

dot FACT SHEETS — Two more fact sheets in the Small Business Assistance Program series have been posted on the Web site. They cover P2 opportunities for shipyards and for metal finishers using chromium plating or anodizing tanks. Links to both are on the PPRC Web site at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/sbap.html. (For more information, contact Chris Wiley (cwiley@pprc.org).

dot FOOD PROCESSING ROUNDTABLE IN '98 — Food processing is one of the inland Northwest's leading industries. PPRC is planning to host a P2 roundtable in Idaho early next year for the benefit of food processors. For more information, contact Technical Director Chris Montovino (cmontovino@pprc.org).


P2 Digest
news briefs from the Northwest and beyond


Sustainable Designs Displayed

Examples of sustainably designed products-a paper wedding dress, a lamp made from used silverware, and handbags made from recycled tire rubber-are on display at the third annual International Design Resource Awards Exhibit (IDRA '97).

The exhibit features 40 examples of furniture, lighting, clothing, packaging, building components and other products.

The exhibit is on display at the Washington State Convention & Trade Center in Seattle, Wash., daily from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. through Dec. 31, 1997.


Water Conservation Incentives

If you operate a business in the Seattle area, you may be eligible to receive free technical assistance and financial incentives to install water conservation technologies. The Water Department provides free technical assistance, including information, bill analysis, water audits and life-cycle cost analysis, and design assistance for new and remodeled buildings. For more information call 206-684-5879 or visit http://www.pan.ci. seattle.wa.us/oed/water.htm.


Oregon Case Studies Planned

Case study fact sheets are being drafted for the first few pilot projects of the Environmental Assistance Project, a technical assistance program of the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and the Portland Environmental Services Bureau.

A completed case study describes a cutting process change implemented by Wacker Siltronics, a silicon wafer manufacturer in Portland which saved $400,000 in water and sewer costs per year as a result.

For information, call DEQ at 503-229-5317 or Environmental Services at 503-823-7740.


Award Programs Seek Nominees

dot VISION 2020 — The Puget Sound Regional Council is seeking nominations for the third annual VISION 2020 Awards, which honor large and small projects that help carry out the region's growth management, economic and transportation strategies. Past winners have implemented innovative development projects and plans, affordable housing and open space programs, transit services, pedestrian/bicycle projects, and resource guides for transportation planning. The nomination period is open until Dec. 31, 1997. For more information, contact Anne Avery at 206-587-4818.

dot Evergreen Award — EPA Region 10 is seeking nominees for its annual Evergreen Award, which recognizes Northwest businesses that incorporate environmental protection into doing business competitively. The nomination period is open until Jan. 12, 1998. For information, contact Carolyn Gangmark at 206-553-4072 or by E-mail at gangmark.carolyn@epamail.epa.gov.

dot Founders of a New Northwest — The Pacific Northwest Regional Council of the President's Council on Sustainable Development and Sustainable Northwest are seeking nominations for the awards program, Founders of a New Northwest. Individuals, communities and businesses working to enhance the sustainability of the economy, environment and social conditions in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington are eligible. Nominations for this award must be submitted by Dec. 8, 1997. Contact Wendy Gurlitz at 503-731-1284 for more information.

dot BEST Business — The City of Portland is seeking nominations for the 1998 BEST Business Awards, which recognize businesses for efforts in energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste reduction and efficient transportation. The 36 companies that have received the awards have collectively cut their operating costs $6.1 million per year, and their energy savings have freed up enough electricity and gas to serve 2,200 Portland homes for one year. Deadline for applying is Feb. 20, 1998. Call 503-823-7222 for information.


CWC Expands Mission

The Clean Washington Center (CWC), the recycling market development program, has joined the nonprofit group Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER). For more information, call 206-389-2530, or visit CWC's Web site at http://www.cwc.org.


P2 Info
web sites, publications with useful information


Squeeze Waste Out of Energy Use

Using energy resources more efficiently will be essential to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and managing the risks posed by global warming. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) has a series of on-line fact sheets that describe commercially available energy-saving technologies that quickly pay for themselves, saving money while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The series is called "Turning Down the Heat: Practical Steps Consumers Can Take To Slow Global Warming (and Save Money!)," and features energy-efficient lighting, windows, residential heating equipment, office equipment, home appliances, electronic equipment and cars.

To read or download the fact sheets visit the ACEEE Web site at http://aceee.org.


Share a Ride on Interstate 5

The Internet can help reduce traffic and air pollution by matching passengers and drivers into car pools. In Washington, Transportation Connections has information about carpooling to sports and cultural events; long distance travel and ridesharing; and mass transit information. You can also ask for or offer rides on line. Visit its Web site at http://www.transconnect.org.

In Oregon, commuters from Portland to Eugene can find car pools via Salem Rideshare. Visit the Web site at http://www.open.org/spubwork/rideshar.html or call 503-371-7665.


Alternative Ways to Clean

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) recently published a fact sheet and a vendor list for degreasing and surface cleaning operations. These documents, "Alternative Cleaning Solvents and Processes," and "Alternative Cleaning Process/Product Vendor List," provide guidance in choosing alternative materials and systems, as well as providing names of companies that offer the alternatives.

For more information, or copies of these fact sheets, call the nearest DEQ regional office or the main office at 800-452-4011.


Trim Your 'Junk Mail'

A new federal law allows consumers to remove their names from mailing lists for "pre-approved" credit offers and other types of unwanted solicitations.

Toll-free telephone numbers operated by three major national credit bureaus will remove individuals' names from mass-distribution credit card and insurance solicitation mailing lists. These credit bureaus share information, so individuals only need to call one of the numbers. Consumers who call one of the numbers below will have their names removed from these mailing lists for two years. To be permanently removed from the mailing lists, individuals must request a form that can be mailed by any of the bureaus.

The credit bureaus are: Equifax at 800-556-4711, Experian (formerly TRW) at 800-353-0809, or Trans Union at 800-680-7293.



Editor & Designer: Jim DiPeso
Technical Editors: Madeline M. Sten
Web Version Format: Crispin Stutzman

Pollution Prevention Northwest is published bimonthly by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. To receive a free subscription (please specify electronic or hard copy), link to the newsletter order form or contact the PPRC, 1326 Fifth Ave.,
Suite 650, Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone: 206-352-2050; Fax: 206-352-2049
E-mail: office@pprc.org

About this Newsletter
Articles from this newsletter may be printed or distributed electronically only in their entirety with written permission from the PPRC. Please credit the author (if any), followed by "Pollution Prevention Northwest, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center."

Advisory Board
Pat Barclay, Idaho Council on Industry and the Environment; Scott Butner, Battelle Seattle Research Center; Fred Claggett, Environment Canada; Jim Craven, American Electronics Association; Gil Omenn, University of Washington School of Public Health; and Kathy Vega, U.S. Department of Energy.

About the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) is a nonprofit organization formed to identify opportunities and overcome obstacles to pollution prevention implementation in the Pacific Northwest. Headquartered in Seattle, Wash., the PPRC serves Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

Financial support for the PPRC is broad-based, with contributions from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, the Northwest states and British Columbia, The Boeing Company, Intel Corporation and the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable. The PPRC accepts environmental settlement moneys to further its work on pollution prevention.

Significant in-kind support has been provided by organizations such as: Hewlett-Packard Company, Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Seattle Research Center, Microsoft Corporation, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and Perkins Coie.

Staff: Madeline M. Sten, Executive Director; Chris Montovino, Technical Director; Jim DiPeso, Communications Director; Chris Wiley, Small Business Liaison; Scott Allison, Business Manager; Crispin Stutzman, Research Associate; and Dana Heisler, Administrative Assistant.

Board of Directors: Richard Bach, President, Stoel Rives, Portland, Ore.; Rodney Brown, Vice President, Marten & Brown LLP, Seattle, Wash; Joan Cloonan, Vice President, J.R. Simplot Company, Boise, Idaho; William June, Secretary, On Point Communications Strategists, Portland, Ore.; Dana Rasmussen, Treasurer, Seattle, Wash.; Scott Forrest, Forrest Paint Co., Eugene, Ore; Johanna M. Munson, State of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska; Gilbert Omenn, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, Wash.; T. Murray Rankin, Arvay Finlay, Victoria, British Columbia; Alan Schuyler, ARCO Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska; Kirk Thomson, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.; Randy Tucker, OSPIRG, Portland, Ore.; and Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard, Boise, Idaho.

© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, web: www.pprc.org