Pollution Prevention Northwest
Published by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

Summer 1998


Restoring Salmon: P2's Role
dotP2 and Salmon Runs: It's About Livable Communities
dotSalmon 101
dotGetting Started: Running a Clean Shop
dotNow, for the Big Picture: Watersheds
dotOn the Ground: Waste Reduction in Northwest Cities, Factories and Farms
dotAssistance Resources for the Business of Managing Water

Other P2 News
dotP2 News
dotP2 Digest
dotP2 Information Resources
dotAbout this Newsletter

P2 Focus Restoring Salmon: P2's Role

salmon Salmon are deeply intertwined in the geography, history and culture of the Pacific Northwest, from Alaska's villages to Idaho's deserts. In the last several decades, however, wild salmon runs have declined sharply as a result of a complex array of factors, including point and non-point pollution.

Preventing pollution at the source is one of the tools that communities can employ to restore the runs, stay ahead of the endangered species and clean water regulatory curves, and improve business efficiency.

This expanded issue of Pollution Prevention Northwest describes P2 approaches in both urban and rural areas. By addressing diffuse pollution sources holistically through watershed management and adopting practical P2 measures, communities and their businesses can improve the bottom line for themselves and for salmon.


P2 and Salmon Runs: It's About Livable Communities

By Richard Conlin
Seattle City Council

The image of salmon restoration that usually comes to mind is a rural scene, perhaps with a biologist looking for redds in a mountain stream, or a farmer screening an irrigation intake.

But restoration is also happening in urban areas like Seattle. It can be as direct as planting trees to prevent heat pollution of a creek, or as arcane as performing DNA tests on fecal coliform to determine whether pets are the cause of unhealthy waters. It means visiting businesses with advice on stormwater pollution prevention, or going door-to-door with materials in six languages about alternatives to toxic products. It involves collecting household hazardous waste and stenciling storm drains.

All of these steps are being taken in Seattle. Some address the few streams within city limits that still have — or could have — salmon runs. Others address the waterways that pass through Seattle — and through which the salmon must pass in order to get to and from the Pacific Ocean.

Restoring small salmon runs in the city can give a modest boost to endangered species. These small runs can preserve the genetic variety that is essential to safeguarding the health of salmon as a whole. They also can educate and inspire, and are part of creating an informed public committed to building livable urban communities. If most people see wild salmon only as a wrapped product in the grocery store meat section, there is little possibility that salmon will continue to fire human imagination and awe.

Pipers Creek in northwest Seattle (see related watershed story) is an example of a place that has been lovingly tended to restore a run. It's where genetic testing was done to determine the role of pets in stream pollution-and where neighbors have an extra reason to ask dog owners to clean up after their animals. Many of today's generally accepted methods for protecting urban creeks were pioneered there, including marking storm drains and providing information to businesses and residents about alternatives to hazardous products.

Led by local resident Nancy Malmgren, the community has labored for years to bring back the runs. In addition to pollution prevention education, drainage improvements and habitat restoration, they have released thousands of smolts into the creek. Several years ago, they were rewarded by the first few fish nosing their way into the stream. It's still touch and go for the long run, but the commitment of neighborhood businesses and residents to P2 has made it possible to build a healthy stream environment.

On the Duwamish River (see related watershed story), salmon must swim past miles of industrial plants to reach spawning grounds on the Green River. Even if they get past outfalls, they may find themselves in overheated water polluted by urban runoff laden with oil, grease and chemicals. On one Duwamish tributary, Hamm Creek, John Beal has labored for years to restore the watershed, planting thousands of trees with the support of various government agencies and committed volunteers. On the verge of success, flooding wiped out many of his projects, reminding us that preventing sediment runoff from construction sites is also a form of P2. The patient restoration work has resumed since the floods.

Environmental restoration will be complemented by reduced pollution from chemicals such as pesticides and household cleaners. The Environmental Coalition of South Seattle, which helps businesses adopt P2, has recruited outreach workers fluent in several Asian languages to bring this information to immigrants who might not be reached by the conventional brochure. Door-to-door work has resulted in positive responses-and a hope that the South Park neighborhood will embrace Hamm Creek and the Duwamish, and help restore their waters to health.

All of these projects were initiated by citizens who are interested not only in restoring wild salmon runs, but in having healthy and thriving communities that relate positively to their natural environment. Ultimately, livable communities help protect the rural streams that carry the bulk of salmon runs, because attractive cities are less likely to see the exodus of their residents to rural areas. Pollution prevention, open space, great schools, and public safety can be effective tools for restoring salmon runs. If we deploy them effectively, urban areas can make a truly significant contribution to bringing back endangered salmon.


Salmon 101

Salmon Facts
A short guide to salmon and sea-going trout

Washington Wild Salmonid Restoration
An overview of restoration efforts, listing impacts

Oregon Plan
The state's plan for restoring salmon and steelhead

King County Overview
Background, news updates, restoration planning


Getting Started: Running a Clean Shop

By Aimee Beckwith
Businesses for Clean Water

Everyday activities in urban areas leave pollutants on the ground that eventually make it into our waterways. For example, oil and grease from vehicles; pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides from turf maintenance activities; and sediment from construction projects are picked up by rainwater and carried through storm drains directly to nearby streams and surface water bodies. This pollution can contaminate water supplies, destroying wildlife habitats and killing fish.

Experts estimate that more than 75 percent of Pacific salmon populations are at some risk of extinction. Polluted stormwater contributes to this decline. Businesses can help protect the health of communities and prevent salmon extinction by taking the following steps to keep streams, lakes and bays clean.

Don't Dump Waste Down Storm Drains
Storm drains are direct conduits to surface water bodies. Nothing but rainwater should enter the storm drains or ditches at your business at any time.

Clean Storm Drains and Ditches
Clean out storm drains, gutters and ditches to prevent pollution from reaching lakes, streams and wetlands

Stencil Storm Drains
Stencil storm drains with the message "dump no waste, drains to stream" to prevent illegal dumping of pollutants. To obtain a stencil in King County, call 206-296-8228. (See "Assistance Resources" below for contacts in other areas.)

Eliminate Indoor Connections to Storm Drains
Eliminate connections to storm drains from inside floor drains, appliances, industrial equipment, sinks and toilets.

Cover, Maintain Storage Containers
Cover waste containers at all times except when in use. Check containers weekly for leaks and make sure that lids are on tightly. Replace containers that are leaking or deteriorating.

Train Employees on Spill Cleanup
Show all employees where spill cleanup materials are stored and how to clean up spills.

Cover and Contain Soil, Sand, Salt Piles
Cover piles of materials at all times, except when in use. Sweep paved areas around stored piles and dispose of loose materials. Do not clean areas by washing dirt down a storm drain.

Cover Stored Recyclables
Cover stored metals and other recyclable materials at all times, except when in use. Drain gasoline and engine fluids from containers and recycle, or dispose of properly if necessary.

Clean Tools and Equipment Indoors
Do not wash tools and equipment outside. Wash water should drain to the sanitary sewer, with permission from your sewerage agency. Water containing hazardous materials should be disposed of properly as hazardous waste. Store restaurant grease in an enclosed, covered container for rendering.

Wash Vehicles Properly
Rinse off car bodies and truck beds with water only. Use mild detergents to wash vehicle bodies on gravel, grass or loose soil that water can filter through. If you wash vehicles on a paved area using soap, or wash the engine area of the vehicle, you should:
• Cover storm drains;
• Drain wash water to a sanitary sewer, or;
• Install a wash water recycling system

Contain Waste from Engine Repair
Use a tarp or pan under vehicles to collect spills and drips. Educate employees on handling and disposal of engine fluids.

Use Proper Landscaping Techniques
Do not apply landscaping chemicals directly to bodies of water or wetlands. Follow package directions. Do not apply chemicals when it's raining or within 100 feet of any body of water. Compost grass, leaves and sticks. (More information on irrigation efficiency and minimizing use of chemicals appears later in this newsletter)

Sweep Parking Lots
Sweep parking lots, storage areas and driveways at least monthly. Do not wash dirt and oil from parking lots down a storm drain. If you wash a parking lot, divert wash water into a sanitary sewer, or use a cleaning service that will collect wash water for disposal in a sanitary sewer.

For more information on how your business can protect water resources and salmon, or for technical assistance in King County, contact Aimee Beckwith at 206-296-1963, aimee.beckwith@metrokc.gov.


Now, for the Big Picture: Watersheds

Throughout the Pacific Northwest, preventing water pollution is being addressed through "watershed approaches" that bring the public and private sector together to identify issues, coordinate resources, and set priorities in geographic areas defined by the bodies of water they drain to.

The structure, authority and strategies of watershed organizations vary widely. A common goal, however, is to address water quality comprehensively and in an ecosystem context, rather than piecemeal, especially in the difficult area of preventing pollution from diffuse sources, such as urban stormwater, agriculture and forestry practices, air pollution, and everyday housekeeping activities.

Below are six examples of watershed approaches that have been undertaken in the Northwest, covering a range of urban and rural locations, and water quality issues.


Issues: Water withdrawals, high water temperatures, sedimentation related to agriculture and forestry practices.

Drivers: Pending endangered species listings of Snake River salmon, desire to retain local control over watershed management.

Summary: In 1992, the Grand Ronde was designated one of three model watersheds in the Columbia River Basin. A Model Watershed Program was established to provide a locally based effort to coordinate public and private programs for improving water quality, restoring anadromous fish, and fostering community development. Landowners and agencies are represented on the program. Projects that have been implemented include erosion control, and fences to keep livestock out of streams.

Outcomes & Lessons: The program has enjoyed some success in recruiting landowners to participate in projects on their properties, and there is increased interest among sub-basin landowners in working together on projects such as irrigation efficiency. Ultimately, however, success will depend on gaining full understanding of watershed science and salmon's biological needs, and development of attitudes and practices that reflect such understanding. Fragmented resource management does not complement emerging knowledge about ecological connectivity. Change that accommodates community values and is built on trusting relationships will have a greater chance of being accepted.

Find Out More: "History, Science, the Law, and Watershed Recovery in the Grand Ronde: A Case Study," by Angus Duncan. Published by Oregon Sea Grant.

Contact: Patty Perry, Grand Ronde Model Watershed Program, 541-962-6590, perryp@eou.edu, http://www.eou.edu/bmnri/grmwp/



Issues: Sedimentation, water temperature, fish passage issues related to forest practices. Drivers: Anticipated listing of coastal coho salmon runs.

Summary: The Coos Watershed Association was formed in 1994 through a collaboration between the South Slough National Estuarine Reserve and the Coos County forester's office, which manages upland forests to the east.

The association is a non-profit organization that is broadly representative and works collaboratively. The association works to foster watershed stewardship by being an "incubator" where ideas are shared and solutions emerge "organically." Current projects include training people to work with timber companies on evaluating roads and landings.

Outcomes & Lessons: Field trips to take a look at watershed problems are good icebreakers when people from different backgrounds are working together. Tangible accomplishments, even if the projects are small, build community interest and investment.

Contact: Anne Donnelly, Coos Watershed Association, 541-888-5922



Issues: Point and non-point nutrient discharges from agricultural runoff, animal feeding operations, aquaculture, wastewater treatment and food processing plants.

Drivers: Idaho Nutrient Management Act, and a court order requiring the state of Idaho to submit schedule for developing Total Maximum Daily Load pollution limits (TMDLs) for impaired water bodies. The order was in response to a citizens suit filed under the Clean Water Act.

Summary: A goal of the Middle Snake TMDL is to use a watershed approach to reduce discharges of nitrogen, phosphorus, bacteria, sediments and other pollutants of concern. Involved in planning were industry sectors, non-government organizations, agencies, and the general public. Each sector drafted a plan for reducing discharges from their industry in order to meet standards in 10 years.

Phosphorus was the pollutant initially targeted. Recommended steps include increased water efficiency and stormwater pollution prevention for wastewater treatment plants, and educating growers on use of best management practices such as irrigation efficiency and cover crops.

Outcomes & Lessons: Plan drafting took longer than expected because of the large number and variety of people and organizations involved. Industry leaders found the approach workable because they drafted segments of the plan that affected their sectors.

Find Out More: http://www.magiclink.com/web/tmdl/docs/tmdldoc/opening.htm; The Watershed Source Book, available at University of Washington Law Library.

Contact: Sonny Buhidar, Idaho DEQ, 208-736-2190, bbuhidar@deq.state.id.us



Issues: Urban runoff, increased demand for water, floodplain and farmland conversion, agriculture and forestry practices in rapidly growing watershed.

Drivers: Citizens suit seeking TMDL compliance, endangered species listing of Willamette River steelhead, high-tech industry's need for clean water.

Summary: The Tualatin watershed council was formed in 1993. Represented on the council are agriculture, forestry, high-tech industry, local governments, developers, NGOs, chambers of commerce. The council developed a strategic plan in 1996 to clarify direction and set priorities. The council has focused on education, including a newsletter, speakers bureau, and erosion control workshop for developers. An action plan under development will seek to integrate existing efforts for improving water quality and fish habitat.

Outcomes & Lessons: A 1997 community survey showed that 73 percent of respondents were aware that storm drains lead directly to bodies of water, up from 53 percent in 1994. More understanding and buy-in is achieved by working on a consensus basis, and respecting all viewpoints. Strategic planning is a must.

Contact: Jacqueline Dingfelder, Tualatin River Watershed Council, 503-681-0953, jdingfel@hevanet.com



Issues: Urban runoff, including oil and grease, yard chemicals, sediment, bacteria

Drivers: Carkeek Watershed Community Action Project, community group highly motivated to restore watershed and bring back salmon to urban stream.

Summary: The Pipers Creek Watershed Action Plan was adopted in 1990, one of the first watershed planning efforts undertaken in Washington. The plan emphasizes pollution prevention through education, and area drainage improvements. One of the first projects was hiring a watershed education specialist to work with businesses and residents on building watershed awareness and on actions to prevent water pollution. Plan performance is under review.

Outcomes & Lessons: More salmon have returned to the creek in the last five years than in the previous 50 years combined. Education is critical for building watershed awareness. Other strategies: have a community group take ownership, find inexpensive projects to be implemented early, secure top-level commitment.

Contact: David McDonald, Seattle Public Utilities, 206-684-7650, David.McDonald@ci.seattle.wa.us



Issues: Lower watershed - Industrial runoff: heavy metals, chemicals, solvents, antifoulants, and hydrocarbons. Upper watershed - Urban, agriculture, forestry runoff.

Drivers: Clean Water Act and Endangered Species Act compliance, environmental health concerns, community development.

Summary: The Green-Duwamish is an ecologically diverse watershed governed by a multitude of agencies. The Green-Duwamish Watershed Council is a loosely organized forum for local agencies to share information about ongoing water quality programs. The council is studying an assessment of non-point source pollution and combined sewer overflows, to assess risks and set priorities watershed-wide, through mechanisms such as effluent trading. The Green-Duwamish Watershed Alliance is developing a Lower Duwamish Community Plan, which will include a source reduction element.

Outcomes & Lessons: Cooperation on a watershed scale is essential for getting traction on long-standing water quality issues. As ESA requirements kick in, broad representation from private and public sectors will be essential.

Contacts: John Beal, Green-Duwamish Watershed Alliance, 206-762-3640; Dennis Canty, Green-Duwamish Watershed Council, c/o King County, 206-296-8394.

Watershed Management: Ten Lessons

1. Clear Vision
Be specific, relate to human experience

2. Leadership
Empower, communicate, find resources

3. Coordinator
Facilitate, implement, celebrate successes

4. Compatible Values
Avoid polarizing economy and environment

5. Implementing
Give assignments, keep projects manageable

6. Partnerships
Be inclusive, respect others' viewpoints

7. Good Tools
GIS mapping, help guides, and money

8. Accountability
Select indicators, set schedules, keep public informed

9. Education
Know audiences, have credible messengers

10. Start Small
Build on small successes to create momentum


Northwest Case Studies:

Cedar River http://www.epa.gov/owow/

McKenzie River http://www.epa.gov/owow/

      'Reocgnize the value of community culture. The more you can preserve it, the more likely change will be accepted.'
      —Angus Duncan, Grand Ronde case study author


On the Ground: Waste Reduction in Northwest's Cities, Factories, Farms

Waste costs money and it also impairs water quality. Reducing waste through pollution prevention is good for business and salmon. Strategies include improved management practices, more efficient use of water, reduced reliance on chemicals, preventing soil erosion, and even energy efficiency. Below are examples of P2 strategies that Northwest businesses in both urban and rural settings have adopted.

STORMWATER RUNOFF: Commercial and industrial firms can keep pollutants out of the water that runs off their paved areas with simple management practices. PSF Industries, Inc. is a steel fabricator in south Seattle that has implemented several measures to keep wastes out of stormwater entering the Duwamish River. An example was designing and fabricating an easy-to-use opening on scrap metal storage bins, to make it easier for employees to use the bins and keep scrap from accumulating in the open. Parking lots and outside storage areas are swept regularly instead of hosed off, to keep oil and grease out of nearby waterways.

Cadman, Inc., a western Washington sand, gravel and concrete supplier, captures stormwater at its facility on the Duwamish River, stores it in a vault, and uses it as process water. The company has not experienced a stormwater discharge to the river since last fall.

See an example of a stormwater pollution prevention plan at http://es.epa.gov/program/p2dept/postal/atlwest.html.

CONSTRUCTION: Management practices can prevent sediment and chemicals from running off construction sites. Max J. Kuney Co., a Spokane contractor, redesigned a bridge project to reduce river bottom disturbance during substructure construction. To avoid spills of petroleum products, the company used a pile driver fueled with biodiesel and lubricated with castor oil.

AGRICULTURE - IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY: Irrigation efficiency is an opportunity for growers to reduce water waste and improve yields. Scientific irrigation scheduling relies on soil moisture readings, weather data, and plant growth characteristics to give crops the right amount of water at the right time. Widespread adoption could save 1.7 million acre-feet of water and more than 175,000 megawatt-hours of electricity over the next 10 years, according to the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance. Drip irrigation is a way to meter water precisely and prevent runoff. JC Watson Co., which grows onions south of Ontario, Ore., experienced a 13 percent increase in yields the first year after a drip system was installed, a 30 percent improvement in crop quality, $30 to $40 per acre savings in fertilizer costs, and a reduction in water use by roughly half.

To learn more about scientific irrigation scheduling: Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, 503-827-8416, http://www.nwalliance.org. To learn more about drip irrigation: MicroIrrigation Forum, http://www.mif.org

AGRICULTURE - INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: IPM can help farmers reduce chemical costs through a combination of strategies such as intensive field monitoring, biological controls, and cover crops. In Idaho's Butte County, 10 barley growers trained in IPM two years ago halved their use of herbicides and saved $15,000 in chemical costs. Of 43 potato growers in eastern Idaho who received IPM training, 76 percent reported they had saved money from reduced insecticide use. Stahlbush Island Farms of Hood River, Ore., which produces fresh, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables, uses intensive management and computer technology as a substitute for chemicals. The farm has eliminated pesticides on sweet corn, squash, pumpkin and green beans, and reduced chemicals on broccoli, strawberries and spinach by 85 percent. There is no single recipe for implementing IPM, and outcome depends on farm management skill, soil and weather conditons, pest type, crop choice, and market conditions.

In addition to harboring beneficial insects, cover crops can reduce soil erosion and prevent nitrate leaching. In Washington's Skagit Valley, farmers planted 1,239 acres of barley that prevented at least 85 tons of nitrate leaching and provided forage for migrating birds.

To learn more about IPM: National Integrated Pest Management Information System, http://ipm.wsu.edu/

FORESTRY: Management practices can protect soils on woodlots and tree farms. Individual Tree Selection Management, Inc., which oversees private wood lots in western Oregon, relies on uneven-aged management, reduced herbicide use, and soil protection to promote healthy stands of mixed conifer and hardwood. A total of 5,023 acres on 27 properties, with an annual allowable cut of 1.5 million to 2 million board-feet, have been certified under SmartWood.

Collins Pine Co. of Oregon manages forests certified by Scientific Certification Systems. For a look at how Collins manages the Collins Almanor Forest in California, visit http://www.collinswood.com/welc.html.

To learn more about certified forestry: SmartWood, http://www.smartwood.org; Scientific Certification Systems, http://www.scs1.com/forests.html

LANDSCAPING: Putting the right plants in the right location is a key to managing healthy yards and landscapes, while minimizing use of water, fertilizer and chemicals. In Harmony, an organic landscaping company and irrigation company in Redmond, Wash., helps plants along with organic fertilizers that build up soil, enhance plant health, add essential nutrients, and encourage beneficial microorganisms. When pest control is necessary, alternative products are employed whenever possible. Among them are horticultural oils.

To learn more about green landscaping: WSU Cooperative Extension Hortsense, http://pep.wsu.edu/hortsense/ or visit In Harmony at http://www.inharmony.com

TURF MANAGEMENT: Water conservation and IPM are options golf courses can adopt to protect water quality, and reduce water and chemical costs. The Widgi Creek Golf Club near Bend, Ore. is a certified Audubon Sanctuary that practices integrated pest management. The course's irrigation system is computer controlled and features a pump with a variable-speed drive that maximizes pumping efficiency. The Aspen Lakes Golf Course in Sisters, Ore., which is working toward certification as an Audubon Signature Golf Course, has a computer-controlled irrigation system that will adjust water applications depending on soil and grass conditions under each sprinkler.

To learn more about golf and the environment: U.S. Golf Association green section, http://www.usga.com/green/.

MARINE SERVICES: Management practices and alternative paint removal technologies reduce discharges from marine facilities. Shipyards, boatyards and marinas pose special concerns because of their proximity to water. Wilson Marine in Seattle implemented a series of measures, including sealing off its drydock, to keep wastewater out of Lake Union. Sundial Marine Tug and Barge Works in Troutdale, Ore., eliminated its underground fuel tanks and converted to "just-in-time" customer fuel service. Todd Pacific Shipyards in Seattle uses high-pressure water blasting for much of its paint removal work. This enables Todd to avoid the high costs of erecting and taking down dust containment systems. Trident Refit Facility in Silverdale, Wash., uses a wetted abrasive blasting process to minimize airborne dust. The facility saved 1,200 person-days of labor per submarine.

To learn more about marine industries P2: Shipbuilding sector notebook, http://es.epa.gov/oeca/sector/index.html#ship.

URBAN WATER EFFICIENCY: Efficient use of water reduces water and sewer bills, and demand on water supplies. Merix Corp., a printed circuit boards manufacturer in Forest Grove, Ore., cut its water consumption by 80 percent and its water bill by $190,000 through process adjustments and wastewater reuse. Trailblazer Foods, Inc., a jam and syrup producer, cut its water use 50 percent through water reuse projects designed and installed by employees. In 1996, Ponderosa Paint, a Boise coatings manufacturer, turned in its industrial discharge permit, which it no longer needs as a result of implementing water reclamation projects that eliminated discharge of regulated wastewater. In Seattle, water consumption has been cut 800,000 gallons daily, through a commercial toilet efficiency rebate program.

To learn more about commercial water efficiency: http://www.epa.gov/OW/you/chap3.html.

REDUCING FOSSIL FUEL EMISSIONS: Energy efficiency reduces fuel costs and reduces nitrogen oxide emissions, thereby reducing nitrate deposition on surface waters. In the Marquam Hill area of Portland, employers including Oregon Health Sciences University, Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center created a transportation partnership. Working with the city, Tri-Met and other area businesses, the partnership resulted in employer-subsidized transit passes, improved bus routes, and carpool and vanpool programs. Employees are saving 174,000 gallons of gasoline a year, worth about $190,000. Bus trips have doubled, single-occupancy vehicle trips have fallen from 64 percent to 50 percent, and 270 car pools have started.

To learn more about transportation alternatives, visit http://www.transconnect.org.


Exchanges Happen
The Pierce County Conservation District has established a manure exchange program to help remove excess nutrients from farms
Contact Info: 253-845-9770, renes@piercecountycd.org

Get Paid to Stop Spouting Off
The city of Portland pays Columbia Slough homeowners to disconnect downspouts and direct runoff onto lawns.
Contact Info: 503-823-5858

BMPs for Anglers
The Kenai River Center's resources for preventing stream bank erosion ranges from low-impact fishing guidance to "house calls."
Contact Info: 907-260-4882

Erosion Fence: 'It's Alive!'
A "living fence" of high-density trees and shrubs along Interstate 84 in Idaho's Raft River Valley prevents wind erosion.

Out of the Permit Loop
Sturgeon Bend Boat Works in Toledo, Ore., installed a closed-loop system for reclaiming wash water. As a result, the boatyard no longer needs a state wash water permit.

Tree Loss Ups Runoff Costs
Puget Sound areas with high tree cover fell 37 percent between 1972 and 1996, resulting in a 29 percent increase in stormwater flow. Replacing the lost stormwater retention capacity would cost $2.4 billion.
Source: American Forests http://www.amfor.org

Assistance Resources for the Business of Managing Water

There are many resources businesses in cities and rural areas can turn to for assistance in reducing waste, improving efficiency, and getting involved in watershed management. Below is a sampler of helpful contacts.

urban setting URBAN RUNOFF

Environmental Coalition of South Seattle (ECOSS)
ECOSS' free environmental extension service assists small and medium-sized businesses in the Duwamish corridor with stormwater pollution prevention and managing hazardous materials.

City of Bellevue Business Partners for Clean Water
Business-designed program offers technical assistance on cost-saving ways of preventing water pollution from stormwater, fleet washing, cleaning and other activities.

Urban, Industrial Stormwater BMPs
Detailed fact sheets on stormwater pollution prevention and control measures.

American StormWater Institute
Technical assistance for local governments, communities and homeowners associations on stormwater best management practices.

Economic Benefits of Runoff Controls
Incorporating structural and/or non-structural runoff control measures into residential and commercial developments, with case studies.

Storm Drain Stenciling
King County - 206-296-8228
Portland - 503-823-7740
Million Points of Blight national campaign: Center for Marine Conservation - 757-496-0920

construction CONSTRUCTION

Stormwater Erosion and Sediment Control - Washington Department of Ecology
Publications WQ-R-93-013 and WQ-R-93-012

Best Management Practices
Detailed fact sheet on pollution prevention and soil erosion control measures.

Best Management Practices Summaries
Overview of BMPs for construction, concrete work, excavation, paving, fleet maintenance


Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
Technical assistance for landowners, communities and conservation districts on soil, water quality protection measures.

Conservation Districts Directory
Nearly every county in the nation has a conservation district that assists landowners with soil conservation and water quality projects.

Cooperative Extensions
Washington State University - http://ext.wsu.edu
Oregon State University - http://wwwagcomm.ads.orst.edu/AgComWebFile/extser/index.html
University of Idaho - http://www.uidaho.edu/ag/extension/
University of Alaska-Fairbanks - http://zorba.uafadm.alaska.edu/coop-ext/index.html
Cooperative extension services offer practical information on many land stewardship issues, including agriculture, horticulture and forestry.

Idaho OnePlan
The OnePlan site helps farmers and ranchers develop farm plans, and offers resources on 10 general farm management topics.

A voluntary program assisting farmers with understanding, assessing and correcting pollution risks.

Salmon Safe Farms
Voluntary certification program for growers

Sustainable Agriculture Network
Publications, databases and contacts directories.

National Agroforestry Center
Combining agriculture and forestry to make more efficient use of soil, water, other inputs

Urban, Private Forest Assistance
Washington: http://www.wa.gov/dnr/base/assistance.html
Oregon: http://www.odf.state.or.us/#Programs
Idaho: http://www2.state.id.us/lands/index.htm
Alaska: http://www.dnr.state.ak.us/forestry/res_faq.htm
Technical assistance for non-industrial private forests and urban forestry.


Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program
Voluntary membership program assisting golf courses, businesses and schools with management of turf, water resources and wildlife habitat. There are 10 certified golf course sanctuaries in the Northwest, three in Washington, seven in Oregon.

Naturescaping for Clean Rivers
Workshops on appropriate plants are held periodically in Multnomah County.

Soundscape Demonstration Garden
The Soundscape Lawn & Garden, at the Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, demonstrates water-efficient landscaping.

Natural Lawn Care
General information about maintaining turf with reduced chemical, fertilizer and water.

Compost Resource Page
A composting guide, from small to large scale

water efficiency WATER EFFICIENCY

Business Water Efficiency
Business water efficiency tips

Water Alliance for Voluntary Efficiency (WAVE)
EPA partnership program encouraging lodging and other industries to improve efficiency

Water Smart Technology
Technical assistance and, in some cases, financial incentives are available for efficient use of water for cooling, cleaning, toilets, and turf irrigation.

Clearinghouse provides publications, vendors directory, on-line conference, and loads of links.


Clean Marinas, Clear Values
Case studies of marinas that have adopted clean operating practices

Boating Resources
Pollution prevention practices for cleaning, paint removal, painting, and maintenance.


Transportation Partners
Technical assistance, publications and contacts for reducing vehicle usage through technology, design and economic incentives.

watersheds WATERSHEDS

For the Sake of the Salmon
Supports and coordinates voluntary watershed management efforts on the West Coast

Watershed Stewardship Grants
Portland: http://www.europa.com/environmentalservices/ss.htm
King County: http://splash.metrokc.gov/wlr/pi/wagcover.htm

Surf Your Watershed
Find out information and news about the health of local watersheds through this searchable site.


Oregon Sea Grant
Research, newsletter, publications on coastal salmon

Northwest Power Planning Council
Reports, newsletters on Columbia Basin salmon

Non-Point Source Library
Summaries of non-point problems, prevention measures for agriculture, forestry, urban development, boating & marinas

Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team
Funding resources, research


The Salmon Page
How to catch, cook, buy and save salmon. Loads of links


P2 News
latest info on PPRC's projects, publications

Take a Look at PPRC's Improved Web Site

If you haven't visited PPRC's Web site lately (http://www.pprc.org/pprc), it's time to take a fresh look. A new design, new sectors and a new, easy-to-read summary of PPRC's projects and activities have greatly improved the site's utility for business and technical assistance providers. The home page highlights new features and a gateway to the most recent on-line version of P2 Northwest.

dotNEW SECTORS: Sector "buttons" added recently include industrial laundries, paint manufacturing, and food processing. The laundries button (http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/laundry.html) offers P2 fact sheets that textile and uniform service companies can provide their customers as an information service. Coming soon to the paint manufacturing button (http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/painting.html) will be a "living document," a continually updated resource on P2 opportunities and regulatory perspectives affecting the paint manufacturing industry. It will be similar in concept and design to the living document available on the fiberglass fabrication button (http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/fiber.html). Contact: Chris Wiley, cwiley@pprc.org

dotREGIONAL HIGHLIGHTS: This is a new button that provides summaries of recent meetings, Rapid Response research topics, new library additions, and topical reports. Coming soon will be a topical report describing P2 resources for the hospitality sector. Contact: Catherine Dickerson, cdickerson@pprc.org

dotCONTACTS DIRECTORY: Looking for a contact? This site, http://www.pprc.org/pprc/contacts.html, offers a comprehensive list of Northwest contacts in P2 policy development, compliance assistance, technical assistance, and "partners" who provide technical assistance to business in pollution prevention, energy efficiency, manufacturing efficiency, and environmental technology. Contact: Chris Wiley, cwiley@pprc.org

dotSHIPYARD DEMOS: A report on the P2 demonstrations for shipyards that PPRC sponsored on June 9 is being finalized. The report will summarize technical and economic aspects of alternative paint removal technologies, highlight discussions on alternative coatings and a stormwater P2 demonstration project, and offer resources with further information. Contact: Chris Wiley, cwiley@pprc.org

dotTECHNOLOGY REVIEWS: Three technology reviews on alternative adhesives are being finalized, and will be posted on the Technology & Research button once completed. Three more reviews on alternative coatings are in the research stage. Contact: Catherine Dickerson, cdickerson@pprc.org

Adhesives ... They're Everywhere
        Produce stickers, Sports shoes, Cartons, Computers, Plywood panels, Automobiles, Countertops, Carpeting, Bandages
        P2 Tech Reviews highlight adhesive alternatives: waterborne, PURs, radiant-cured. Contact us for more information.

Food Processing Roundtable
An industrial roundtable for food processors has been rescheduled for Nov. 5, in Burley, Idaho. The roundtable will be an opportunity for food processors to share ideas about ways to reduce water, solid and energy waste. Contact: Cathy Buller, cbuller@pprc.org
Librarians Network
PPRC is managing a new listserve for professional librarians who manage P2 collections. The listserve is for exchange of ideas on managing collections, sharing information resources, standardization, and other issues of interest to librarians. Contact: Jim DiPeso, jdipeso@pprc.org


P2 Digest
news briefs from the Northwest and beyond


Ray Anderson at Expo '98

        "Environmental Partners: Business and Community Working for the Environment" is the theme of the ninth annual "Environmental Forum for Business - Expo '98," to be held Oct. 20-22 at the Spokane Convention Center.
        Topics include sustainable construction and community planning, alternative energy, pollution prevention, and salmon recovery. Keynote speakers include Ray Anderson, CEO of Interface and co-chair of the President's Council on Sustainable Development; William McDonough, dean of architecture at the University of Virginia; and Hazel Wolf, Seattle centenarian and editor of Outdoors West.
        Visit the Expo's website at http://www.environmentalforum.org, or contact Sean Smith at 509-358-2073, enviro@sirti.org.


Good Business Conference

        The upcoming Good Business conference on socially responsible business practices offers a day of conversation and insights on how organizations can be profitable and socially responsible. The event is scheduled for Oct. 13 at the Nike Conference Center in Beaverton, Ore.
        The conference registration fee is $145 before Sept. 13, and $175 after that date. Contact 503-284-9132, or axismw@e-z.net, and mention the conference's name.


REMCON Renamed, Expanded

        Northwest Environmental Conference and Trade Show (formerly REMCON) will be held Nov. 17-18 at the Double Tree Hotel at Jantzen Beach in Portland. Topics include TMDLs and endangered species, communicating with the public, The Natural Step, and market incentives. A HAZWOPER refresher course will be offered Nov. 16. Sponsors include the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Associated Oregon Industries, American Electronics Association, and the Northwest Environmental Business Council.
        For more information call, 503-644-1222 or visit NEBC at http://www.nebc.org.


Ag and Water Quality

        Yakima will be the site of a conference on "Agriculture and Water Quality in the Pacific Northwest" Oct. 20-21. Presentation and panel topics include best management practices, ground water management, ecosystems and watersheds, erosion control, and precision irrigation.
        Registration fee is $100 before Oct. 2 After Oct. 2, registration will be accepted only at the door, and will cost $150. Contact the Far West Fertilizer and AgriChemical Association at 509-838-6653, or farwest@ior.com.


Many WaterWeeks Activities

        From now through Oct. 4, you can participate in many fun and educational Washington WaterWeeks activities. WaterWeeks events take place around the state, and help protect and enhance lakes, watersheds, rivers, streams, ocean waters, and habitats.
        You can plant trees along a stream, clean up a beach, count returning salmon, explore an underwater park, or join in other family-oriented events such as OysterFest in Shelton or Issaquah Salmon Days. For more information, visit http://www.waterweeks.org, or call 360-943-3642.


Livable Communities Fair

        Seattle Center will be the site of the first Livable Communities Fair, to be held on Saturday, Nov. 7. The free program will include speakers, workshops and interactive displays showing ways people can build walkable communities and enhance safety and security. Scheduled speakers include James Kuntsler, author of Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape, and Kennedy Lawson-Smith, coordinator of the National Trust for Historic Preservation/National Main Street Center.
        For more information, visit the conference web site at http://www.livablecommunities.org, or contact Shirley Tomasi at 206-296-0355, shirley.tomasi@metrokc.gov


Inventors Guide Available

        Inventors looking for assistance in technical assessments, patenting, development funding or other services can turn to the Inventors Assistance Source Directory. The directory may be obtained from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, by calling 509-372-4270.


Boeing Gets Award

        The Boeing Company received the Washington Department of Ecology's highest corporate award for waste reduction last May. Boeing was honored for achievements such as recycling more than 100 commodities, including 50 million pounds of aluminum last year, reclaiming more than 1 million drill bits for reuse, and recycling 60 percent of its waste stream.
        For information, contact Dean Tougas at Boeing, 425-865-5879.


Flexography P2

        Inside Flexo: A Cleaner Run for the Money is a 19 minute video produced by EPA's Design for the Environment (DfE) Flexography Project. It shows flexographic printers how to work more efficiently, save money, and improve the environment through alternative ink technologies.
        It's free from EPA's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse: ppic@epa.gov.


P2 Info
web sites, publications with useful information


Power Pollution Calculator

        With the click of a button, people can find out where their electricity comes from, how much electricity they use, and how much pollution is emitted in producing their electricity. You can find this information from the Environmental Defense Fund at: http://www.edf.org/programs/energy/green_power/x_calculator.html
        In the Northwest (except for Alaska), you'll find that 71 percent of electricity is generated by large hydroelectric dams, 26 percent comes from coal, and the balance from nuclear and natural gas. In Alaska, 57 percent is generated in gas-fired plants, 25 percent from large hydro, and the balance from oil and coal-fired plants. What's your share of the pollution generated? Punch in your monthly electricity bill and find out.


'Green' Construction Profiles

        The King County Commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials is highlighting building projects in the Puget Sound region that have used recycled construction materials. The projects are being profiled at the enCompass site, http://www.metrokc.gov/market. To be included in the profiles, a project must meet the following criteria:

        Submit project descriptions to Ann Thorpe, King County Commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials, 400 Yesler Way, Suite 200, Seattle, WA 98104. For information, contact 206-296-3740, or ann.thorpe@metrokc.gov.


Are You 'WoodWise?'

        A consumers guide to being "woodwise" has been published by Co-op America and is available at http://www.woodwise.org. The guide offers guidance on reducing paper consumption, stopping junk mail, sharing books and periodicals, and buying certified lumber.
        You can also take a quiz to see how "woodwise" you are. Example: Which of the following items is least likely to contain any wood: corner gas station, roll of film, colorful print skirt, or official NFL football? Take the quiz and find out.


P2 Measurement Database

        Looking for ways to measure P2 progress? The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and EPA's National Risk Management and Research Laboratory (NRMRL), have developed the P2 Measurement Tools Resource Guide, a database of environmental tools that can help you find software measurement tools, and see how tools can produce P2 measurement data.
        The Resource Guide allows the user to search for P2 measurement software relevant to facility management, process simulation modeling, corporate environmental strategies, compliance, or environmental management systems.
        Download the Resource Guide for free from http://clean.rti.org/resguide/. For more information, contact Melissa Malkin of RTI at 919-541-6154, mjmalkin@rti.org, or Theresa Hoagland of EPA at 513-569-7783, hoagland.theresa@epamail.epa.gov.


Hospital P2

        "Greening" Hospitals is a new report on hospital pollution prevention, based on survey results from 50 of America's top hospitals. The survey was produced by Health Care Without Harm, a national coalition of healthcare providers and public health advocates, and The Environmental Working Group.
        You can find the report - and you can link to the detailed waste reduction and recycling survey results for the participating hospitals - at: http://www.ewg.org/pub/home/reports/greening/greenpr.html



Editor & Designer: Jim DiPeso
Technical Editors: Madeline M. Sten
Web Version Format: Crispin Stutzman

Pollution Prevention Northwest is published bimonthly by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. To receive a free subscription (please specify electronic or hard copy), link to the newsletter order form or contact the PPRC, 1326 Fifth Ave.,
Suite 650, Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone: 206-352-2050; Fax: 206-352-2049
E-mail: office@pprc.org

About this Newsletter
Articles from this newsletter may be printed or distributed electronically only in their entirety with written permission from the PPRC. Please credit the author (if any), followed by "Pollution Prevention Northwest, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center."

Advisory Board
Pat Barclay, Idaho Council on Industry and the Environment; Scott Butner, Battelle Seattle Research Center; Fred Claggett, Environment Canada; Jim Craven, American Electronics Association; Gil Omenn, University of Washington School of Public Health; and Kathy Vega, U.S. Department of Energy.

About the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) is a nonprofit organization formed to identify opportunities and overcome obstacles to pollution prevention implementation in the Pacific Northwest. Headquartered in Seattle, Wash., the PPRC serves Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, and also takes part in projects with benefits beyond the Northwest.

Financial support for the PPRC is broad-based, with contributions from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Northwest states, The Boeing Company, Intel Corporation and others. The PPRC accepts environmental settlement moneys to further its work on pollution prevention.

Significant in-kind support has been provided by organizations such as: Hewlett-Packard Company, Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Seattle Research Center, Microsoft Corporation, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and the Fluke Corporation.

Staff: Madeline M. Sten, Executive Director; Catherine Dickerson, Technical Lead; Chris Wiley, Small Industry Outreach Lead; Jim DiPeso, Communications Director; Crispin Stutzman, Research Associate; Cathy Buller, Research Associate; Scott Allison, Business Manager; and Dana Heisler, Administrative Assistant.

Board of Directors: Richard Bach, President, Stoel Rives, Portland, Ore.; Rodney Brown, Vice President, Marten & Brown LLP, Seattle, Wash; Joan Cloonan, Vice President, J.R. Simplot Company, Boise, Idaho; William June, Secretary, On Point Communications Strategists, Portland, Ore.; Dana Rasmussen, Treasurer, Seattle, Wash.; Scott Forrest, Forrest Paint Co., Eugene, Ore; Johanna M. Munson, Alaska National Petroleum Reserve Representative, Anchorage, Alaska; T. Murray Rankin, Arvay Finlay, Victoria, British Columbia; Alan Schuyler, ARCO Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska; Kirk Thomson, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.; Randy Tucker, Oregon State Public Interest Research Group, Portland, Ore.; and Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard, Boise, Idaho.

© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, web: www.pprc.org