Pollution Prevention Northwest
Published by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

June/July 1997


Featured Topic: ISO 14000
dot Introduction : ISO 14000 — Performance or Paperwork?
dot ISO 14000 — Industry Perspectives
dotPOINT - COUNTERPOINT: How Will ISO 14000 Affect Pollution Prevention?

Other P2 News
dotStewardship: All in a Day's Work
dotWhat's New on Our Web Site
dotNew Staff at PPRC
dotShipyard Roundtable Focuses on P2 Needs
dotPollution Prevention Digest
dotInformation Resources at Your Fingertips...
dotAbout this Newsletter

earth ISO 14000 - Performance or Paperwork?

ISO 14000 - Is certifying environmental management systems the ticket to integrating environmental issues seamlessly into business practice, or is it a costly paper-pushing exercise that will fail to yield environmental results?

The debate is in full swing among business leaders, regulatory agencies, environmental consultants and public interest organizations. To illuminate the debate, this issue of Pollution Prevention Northwest takes a look at the pros and cons of ISO 14000.

ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, is a global federation of 91 national organizations, including the American National Standards Institute, that sets technical specifications for products, processes and services in order to make them more widely usable and foster trade.

ISO 9000 is a series of five quality management and assurance standards first developed in 1987. They are not specific to any product or service, and were developed to document quality systems, including design, manufacturing, inspection and servicing. ISO 14000 is a new series of six standards on environmental management systems.

The 14000 series closely follows the 9000 series design in systems such as documentation control, auditing, management policies, and data techniques. But there is a big difference as well. ISO 9000 addresses management systems for assuring product quality, and has demonstrated a direct impact on competitiveness. In contrast, ISO 14000 addresses management systems for environmental compliance, which many companies consider a regulatory burden. Another issue is redundancy. Several elements are applicable to pollution prevention and waste reduction, Ken Hardison, training manager of the University of Tennessee's Center for Industrial Services, said April 3 at the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's spring conference. In focusing on quality control, 9000 addresses issues applicable to P2 as well, such as waste reduction.

ISO asserts that the 14000 series will have numerous benefits: "Standards can play an essential complementary role to regulations, by ensuring good management and compliance; by helping in decision making by consumers, manufacturers, governments and others; and by harmonizing business practices beyond the limitations of national and regional borders," Dr. George Connell, who chaired the technical committee that developed 14000, noted in ISO's 1996 annual report.

ISO 14000 is a voluntary series that addresses management systems for tracking performance, not for assuring performance, which critics view as a significant weakness. In a recent report, the World Wide Fund for Nature (known as World Wildlife Fund in the U.S.) said the 14001 compliance standard does not evaluate the environmental impacts of products or production. The standard itself states that performance is not addressed, beyond compliance with laws and regulations. Since those range widely among nations in their stringency, compliance alone is not a metric for creating or assessing environmental impacts, or leveling the global environmental playing field.

Ultimately, Hardison said, most companies pursuing certification to the 14001 compliance standard are motivated because there are external drivers aligning certification with their needs - competitors are doing it, customers are demanding it, or agencies are offering regulatory relief for implementing it.


ISO 14000 — Industry Perspectives


Fujitsu, an electronics and telecommunications equipment manufacturer with a memory device and wafer manufacturing facility in Gresham, Ore., has put in place an environmental management system (EMS) that conforms to ISO 14001 requirements.

Fujitsu's EMS grew out of the system put in place for ISO 9002 registration, which was obtained in 1995. "We had a lot of the systems in place (from 9002)," said Chip Bloomer, environmental engineer at the Gresham plant. "We needed a good way to solidify it, and 14000 provided a standardized framework."

The company, however, sees little environmental benefit to obtaining 14001 registration. "We're more interested in performance. Certification doesn't demonstrate performance. All it does is document that you have a (environmental management) system," Bloomer said. The funds expended on certification would be better spent on actual performance. However, the company may still seek 14001 registration if there are competitive reasons for doing so.

The company's environmental philosophy, not the EMS, is the strongest performance driver, but the EMS plays a complementary role, he said.


Fluke Corporation's attitude toward ISO registration is that the market will dictate the company's path.

Fluke, an Everett,Wash., firm which manufactures electronics test tools, received 9001 registration for all its manufacturing facilities worldwide in 1993, and is examining 14001 registration. The company won't move forward, though, unless marketplace drivers, such as customer expectations, push the company in that direction, said environmental affairs manager George Bissonette.

One such driver would be if Fluke starts to see a "real trend" toward its customers expecting vendors to be registered. Customer expectations were the driver for 9001 registration, he pointed out. Another driver might be regulatory streamlining. The Washington Department of Ecology, for example, is accepting EMS documentation in lieu of P2 plans required by state law.

He doesn't expect that 14001 registration, if it takes place, would yield pollution prevention activities that Fluke otherwise wouldn't have done. "Would it improve overall performance? It would formalize the documentation."

Fluke "over-documented" in the 9000 process, so if 14001 registration becomes advantageous, Fluke can get a head start on the process, he said.


Tempress, Inc., a Seattle, Wash., firm which manufactures injection-molded plastic products for heavy vehicle markets, is pursuing ISO 9001 registration, and is looking to follow up with ISO 14001 registration in the following year, seeing the latter as a reinforcement of 9001's reliance on evidence for quality assurance.

Tempress President Ray Aspiri expects ISO 14001 to become part of the "adopted platform" on a multi-national basis, as ISO 9000 already has. Being registered will mean competing on a level playing field. The documentation may spotlight P2 opportunities plant managers may not have been aware of before, he said.

The 9001 documentation has become "part of our internal discipline," Aspiri said, but he pointed out that high-quality documentation does not necessarily lead to a high-quality product. Aspiri observed that support for environmental performance at the senior management level does not necessarily filter down to day-to-day decision-making, such as purchasing, in which price may be the only criterion that matters.

Another reservation, Aspiri said, is that establishing and maintaining an environmental management system to ISO standards is a significant undertaking, along with hiring and training EMS personnel familiar with the processes and materials his industry employs.


Intalco, the Pacific Northwest's largest producer of primary aluminum, is exploring ISO 14001 registration in order to complement the company's practice of empowering employees. All facilities owned by Alumax, Intalco's parent company, are registered to the ISO 9001 quality management standard.

George Scott, Intalco's environmental affairs manager, said an EMS gives "people the tools to do process improvements."

Intalco is patterning its environmental management after ISO anyway, but Scott feels that registering to 14001 would provide an internal driver to ensure the company "stays on board" with performance. Another driver is image. "We feel that the additional costs would result in enhanced environmental performance," which would improve the company's public image, he said.

Whether certification will result in pollution prevention that would not have been implemented otherwise is hard to say, according to Scott. Intalco does not plan to require vendors to be certified at this time.


How Will ISO 14000 Affect Pollution Prevention?

P2 Lots of Paperwork, Not Much P2

by Jonathan Naimon, Eco Efficiency Associates

ISO 14000 series management standards have been proposed as a key component of efforts to devise productive "win-win" alternatives to command and control regulation. For five reasons detailed below, ISO is more likely to worsen existing resource constraints facing pollution prevention efforts at companies of all sizes, particularly, small and medium sized companies.

1. ISO will divert resources from pollution prevention to paperwork

In a world of fixed or declining environmental budgets, ISO compliance will divert resources from other environmental or legal compliance programs. In all likelihood, ISO systems, particularly if they are available to regulators and environmental organizations, will require allocation of resources to external relations specialists including communications and legal personnel. As a result, ISO activities will be more like environmental reporting or external industry code activities and less like internal process modification or environmental engineering activities that deliver results.

Eco Efficiency Associates, in conjunction with Shapiro & Associates and Carnegie Mellon University researchers, found that large firms that adhere to external codes of conduct had progressively worse environmental performance trends (higher toxic chemicals emissions, and oil and chemical spills exceeding 1,000 pounds) than their peers. This study was based on environmental, financial and other data on more than 10,000 S&P 500 company facilities.

A logical explanation is that limited corporate environmental budgets were directed towards consultants who develop and test management systems instead of towards in-house personnel with the skills needed to effect pollution prevention and process changes that bring greater environmental benefits.

2. ISO will not win marketplace recognition benefits from environmental consumers

ISO is an external code of conduct, developed by industry and governments as an alternative to trade-restrictive environmental rules. Will environmentally-oriented consumers view ISO as a good housekeeping seal of approval? There is no evidence that ISO could generate the type of price premium demonstrated by labels that attest to environmentally-relevant results.

3. Key stakeholders do not value ISO certification

Some companies and consultants have suggested ISO will generate goodwill among key corporate stakeholders such as environmental organizations, government agencies, corporate partners such as suppliers, and the media. This proposition was tested in the context of other types of environmental information available today. With support from the Global Environmental Management Initiative, a coalition of more than 20 companies, we asked stakeholders what types of environmental information interested them.

Focus group results show that ISO and other forms of third party certification arc not particularly valued by any of these critical environmental stakeholders. We found that the most valuable types of information concerned trends in company performance.

4. ISO 14000 will not be useful for improving environmental performance at smaller businesses

ISO 14000 was negotiated principally by delegations of global companies and European government representatives. It is safe to say that small businesses couldn't participate in ISO's development - many large companies and the U.S. government couldn't follow all the meetings. It should be obvious to anyone visiting small companies that specific technical ideas are more useful than complex management systems.

As a practical matter, small and medium- size enterprises will use consultants to prepare ISO documents. Knowledge associated with plan preparation will be retained by consultants. Contrast this with a technical requirement, such as the phaseout of ozone-depleting solvents, which led to development of practical alternatives.

5. ISO will not lead to reduced regulatory burdens for business

For ISO to benefit business, it needs to reduce their command and control regulation burdens, such as the costs of addressing environmental compliance and enforcement. What is necessary to gain the essential stakeholder approval, however, is a demonstration of environmental performance. Unfortunately, ISO's drafters excluded performance advancement and included system improvement. Research by our firm suggests that agencies in the U.S. have not cut enforcement activity for firms that have improved environmental performance.

Jonathan Naimon is president of Eco Efficiency Associates in Seattle, 206-621-0323.


P2 Will Become Integral to Planning

by John Kinsella, SCS Engineers

In contrast to Jonathan Naimon's contention that ISO 14000 is more likely to worsen resource constraints facing pollution prevention efforts at companies, I believe ISO 14000 will actually elevate the importance of pollution prevention by making it an integral part of the business planning cycle. Here is my response to Jonathan's five points:

1. ISO 14000 will divert resources from pollution prevention to paper work

Environmental budgets will be more effectively spent under ISO 14000. ISO 14001, the environmental management system (EMS) standard, is built on the premise of Plan - Do - Check - Act. Many pollution prevention initiatives have failed because they do not move beyond the Plan - Do stage. ISO 14001 requires a company to measure its ability to meet specific environmental objectives and targets. There is a mechanism in place to take corrective action when the system fails. In addition, management review of the system performance is mandatory. Finally, the company must commit resources to meet the objectives and targets.

In working with companies that are certified to ISO 14001 or in the process of aligning their EMS with ISO 14001, we have found there is a very strong commitment to achieving environmental improvement, including pollution prevention.

ISO 14001 is very much an in-house program. All company employees are made aware of the EMS through the environmental policy. In addition, ISO 14001 requires that all employees whose job could have an impact on the environment receive appropriate training. It pushes environmental responsibility across all functions and up and down the management structure. ISO 14001 will change environmental management from the exclusive responsibility of experts and make it a collective responsibility.

2. ISO will not win marketplace recognition benefits from environmental consumers

If we assume that company employees are also consumers, then ISO 14000 will win marketplace acceptance by elevating environmental quality to the same level as product quality and product safety. The Region 10 ISO 14000 Leadership Project conducted focus groups that supported this. Companies rated their image as an environmentally responsible company in the eyes of their customers and employees as a major reason to implement ISO 14001.

3. Key stakeholders do not value ISO information

The assertion that "ISO and other forms of third party certification are not particularly valued by any of these critical environmental stakeholders" differs from the Leadership Project findings. Understanding that ISO 14001 would not presage the elimination of regulations, public interest groups were not adverse to third party certification if they could be assured that certifying bodies were competent.

4. ISO 14000 will not be useful for improving environmental performance at smaller companies

When the ISO 9000 quality standards were first issued, the argument was made that they would not apply to small business because the expense and paperwork would be too burdensome. Since then, more than 100,000 companies, large and small, worldwide have recognized that quality can be improved systematically. The same reasoning applies to environmental management. There are Northwest companies with 50 or fewer employees looking at ISO 14001 implementation.

ISO is far from an elaborate system. Properly applied, it gives an organization the ability to manage its environmental liabilities.

5. ISO will not lead to reduced regulatory burdens for business

From working with a wide range of companies, we have found time and again that obtaining regulatory relief is not a driver for implementing ISO 14001. What organizations want to see is that the EMS will deliver tangible benefits - reduced costs, improved performance, reduced liabilities.

There is an indication that regulatory agencies want to reduce burdens on businesses, which is not the same as reducing their legal obligations. Regulatory agencies recognize that having an EMS will allow a company to systematically deal with its environmental challenges. These challenges will include the company's regulatory commitments as well as non- regulatory initiatives. Washington state has taken a progressive step with its alternative EMS application in which a company submits evidence of an EMS in lieu of a P2 plan.

The basic premise of ISO 14001 is that a company will meet its regulatory requirements as a minimum and will, above and beyond compliance, achieve improved, measurable performance.

John Kinsella is national leader for EMS services at SCS Engineers, 425-746-4600.


Stewardship: All in a Day's Work

by Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Products Group

Environmental protection in the 1970s and first half of the 1980s focused principally on managing the "end-of-pipe" effluents. During the mid-1980s, Hewlett-Packard shifted its thinking from simply managing wastes to waste reduction and pollution prevention.

As we move through the 1990s, market forces are leading to another change in the way large corporations think about environmental management. In Europe especially, a philosophy of life-cycle management, or product stewardship, is proving to be a driving force for legislative initiatives that are using market forces to induce more environmentally responsible behavior by industry.

At Hewlett-Packard, we view product stewardship as a philosophy and practice of designing products, accessories and processes to prevent and/or minimize adverse health, safety and ecological impacts throughout their life cycle - design, manufacture, distribution, use, take-back, disassembly, reuse, recycling and ultimate disposition. Also taken into account are possible environmental impacts that may occur "upstream" with respect to our suppliers' manufacture of materials, parts and components used in HP's products.

The driving forces for HP's program initiative include:

HP has always had a stated corporate objective to be a responsible citizen, and this objective is the foundation of our environmental and safety programs, including product stewardship. Competitor actions also help drive product stewardship improvements and results. A third driver is legislative and regulatory initiatives that in some cases drive our actions. For example, actions such as the European Union's packaging directive have helped focus our efforts.

The fourth, and perhaps most important driver, is customer and market expectations. Customers are beginning to inquire about the environmental features and impacts of our products and processes, such as energy efficiency, packaging materials and recyclability.

HP's product stewardship organizational structure reflects the decentralized, autonomous nature of our businesses, the view of product stewardship as a business issue, and our strategy to integrate product stewardship into standard business processes.

At a company-wide level we have a "core" facilitation team that coordinates and champions the overall program. Within each major business, a communications network consisting of product stewards at each worldwide product line has been established to facilitate the flow of product stewardship regulatory or standards requirements and customer/market expectations to the product lines. The product stewards were recruited from among research and development, manufacturing, and marketing, or another function closely affiliated with the product generation process. The decision to draw the "product stewards" from functions directly involved in the product generation process was fundamental. Product stewards need to understand and be experienced with the division's "phase review" process for product design.

HP's product stewardship efforts should ultimately help HP's businesses achieve improved business results, by helping to assure they meet the emerging product environmental performance expectations of HP's customers. HP has released a number of products with improved environmental features including Vectra PCs, LaserJet and DeskJet printers. We expect that the program foundation described above will enable HP's businesses to continue introducing new products that will meet the expected increasing customer expectations for environmental performance.

Forrest Whitt is quality assurance manager for Hewlett-Packard's LaserJet Products Group, in Boise, Idaho, 208-396-4018.


new What's New on Our Web Site

A self-help guide to inventorying emissions and wastes is the latest addition to the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center's Web site.

"How to Inventory Your Wastes for Environmental Compliance" is an easy-to-use, step-by-step workbook that will help businesses manage their wastes, understand their environmental responsibilities, and look for pollution prevention opportunities.

The workbook provides basic information on wastes and pollutants. Then, it describes how to estimate waste and emission quantities. There are appendices of contacts and resources.

The guide is included in the Northwest Business Assistance Network page of our Web site (http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/sbap.html).


New Staff at PPRC

Two new staff members have joined PPRC.

Technical Director Chris Montovino came to PPRC from Filtration/Treatment Systems Ltd., where he was senior associate engineer.

Communications Director Jim DiPeso came to PPRC from the Northwest Conservation Act Coalition, an energy policy organization where he was communications director.


Shipyard Roundtable Focuses on P2 Needs

ship More than 40 representatives of shipyards, ports, government agencies and consultants came together at the Shipyard Roundtable, where helpful, timely information was exchanged about storm water management and preventing pollution through alternatives to sand-blasting.

The May 13 roundtable, held in Seattle, was co-sponsored by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center and American Waterways Operators.

Among the topics addressed at the roundtable were:

A report on the roundtable is in preparation. PPRC plans to hold a similar roundtable in Oregon this year. For more information, call 206-352-2050.


Pollution Prevention Digest


Hazardous Waste Conference

Government officials and businesses working on household and small business hazardous waste programs in the western U.S. and Canada are invited to the Western Regional Hazardous Waste Conference June 26-27 in Spokane, Wash. Keynote speaker will be Alan Thein Durning, executive director of Northwest Environment Watch, who will address "Building Partnerships for a Sustainable Future."

The registration fee for the conference is $65, optional 8-hour HAZWOPER Refresher Training is $100, and both the conference and training are $150. Registration must be postmarked by June 13. For information, contact Suzanne Tarr at 509-962-7577 or 509-962-7698.


ODEQ Compliance Outreach

A compliance outreach project for small companies engaged in chrome plating and anodizing is being undertaken by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

The department plans to visit companies that degrease metals with halogenated solvents, in order to help them comply with federal air toxics control regulations. The companies will be shown the benefits of substituting pollution prevention technologies such as aqueous cleaning for solvent-based vapor degreasers. Oregon offers tax credits for P2 investments.

For more information, contact Terry Obteshka at DEQ, 503-229-6147, or terry.obteshka@state.or.us.


Get Paid for P2 Lawn Mowing

Did you know that mowing your lawn for one hour with a gas-powered mower creates as much air pollution as driving a car for 50 miles? It is estimated that 6 percent of the smog-causing air pollution in the Portland metropolitan area comes from gas-powered lawn and garden equipment.

Electric mowers and push mowers work just as well, they don't give off any exhaust, and if you live in the Portland area you may qualify for a cash rebate for a new electric or push mower.

Through July 6, the first 400 Portland-area residents who buy any new electric or push mowers can receive a cash rebate. Portland General Electric, in conjunction with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, is offering a $50 rebate on new electric lawnmowers and a $15 rebate on new push mowers.

For information, contact Terry Worrell at 503-612-3500 or visit the Web sites (http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/fact/mower.htm or http://www.pge-online.com/new/mower/index.html).


P2 Report Guide Revised

The Washington Department of Ecology has revised its guidebook for submitting annual pollution prevention progress reports.

The guide can be found at http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/hwtr93-38.pdf. You will need a pdf reader to view the document on-line. For information, call Ecology's Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program at 360-407-6700.


What's the Earth Worth?

The value of food, water, flood control and other services provided by the Earth range from $18 trillion to $54 trillion per year, most of which is outside markets, according to an article, "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," published in the May 15 issue of Nature.

Read the article and sign up for a discussion group at: http://csf.colorado.edu/ISEE/ecovalue/.


Information Resources at Your Fingertips ...


New Waste Prevention Web Site

Source reduction and waste prevention information have another home on the Internet at the new National Waste Prevention Coalition (NWPC) Web site.

Current topics posted on the site include the computer disk recovery project, junk mail reduction, packaging reduction, and waste prevention links. For more information, contact Tom Watson at 206-296-4481 or visit the site (http://www.metrokc.gov/nwpc/).


H-P Site Gives Environmental Angle

Hewlett-Packard now maintains aWeb site with environmental information about the company and its products.

The site details how the company has integrated environmental and pollution prevention concerns into product design, manufacturing, reuse and recycling and packaging.

Visit the Web site at http://www.hp.com/abouthp/envrnmnt/ .


Helpful Directories Available

• P2 Faculty, Programs: The National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education (NPPC) recently published the 1997 edition of the Directory of Pollution Prevention in Higher Education: Faculty and Programs. For information, call 313-764-1412 or send an e-mail message to nppc@umich.edu .

• Reusing Electronic Items: EPA has published a directory of organizations that will reuse and recycle consumer electronics including computers, televisions and video cameras. To receive a free copy, call 1-800-424-9346.


New Toll-Free P2 Hotline

The National Pollution Prevention Roundtable has started a P2 toll-free hotline service for people looking for specific contacts and other P2 information resources. The hotline, 1-888-PIK-P2P2, is staffed from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Pacific time, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays.


Shave with a Gyroscope

If you've always wondered what a gyroscopic razor, a bamboo bicycle, or an electricity-producing window looks like, your wait is over. The United Nations Environment Programme has a fascinating Web site with examples of innovative sustainable products, including long-life furniture, cooking appliances that use renewable energy, and a hand-crank powered radio.

Check it out at http://unep.frw.uva.nl.



Editor & Designer: Jim DiPeso
Technical Editors: Madeline M. Sten
Web Version Format: Crispin Stutzman

Pollution Prevention Northwest is published bimonthly by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. To receive a free subscription (please specify electronic or hard copy), link to the newsletter order form or contact the PPRC, 1326 Fifth Ave.,
Suite 650, Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone: 206-352-2050; Fax: 206-352-2049
E-mail: office@pprc.org

About this Newsletter
Articles from this newsletter may be printed or distributed electronically only in their entirety with written permission from the PPRC. Please credit the author (if any), followed by "Pollution Prevention Northwest, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center."

Advisory Board
Pat Barclay, Idaho Council on Industry and the Environment; Scott Butner, Battelle Seattle Research Center; Fred Claggett, Environment Canada; Jim Craven, American Electronics Association; Gil Omenn, University of Washington School of Public Health; and Kathy Vega, U.S. Department of Energy.

About the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) is a nonprofit organization formed to identify opportunities and overcome obstacles to pollution prevention implementation in the Pacific Northwest. Headquartered in Seattle, Wash., the PPRC serves Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

Financial support for the PPRC is broad-based, with contributions from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, the Northwest states and British Columbia, The Boeing Company, Intel Corporation and the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable. The PPRC accepts environmental settlement moneys to further its work on pollution prevention.

Significant in-kind support has been provided by organizations such as: Hewlett-Packard Company, Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Seattle Research Center, Microsoft Corporation, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and Perkins Coie.

Staff: Madeline M. Sten, Executive Director; Chris Montovino, Technical Director; Jim DiPeso, Communications Director; Chris Wiley, Small Business Liaison; Scott Allison, Business Manager; and Crispin Stutzman, Research Associate.

Board of Directors: Richard Bach, President, Stoel Rives, Portland, Ore.; Rodney Brown, Vice President, Marten & Brown LLP, Seattle, Wash; Joan Cloonan, Vice President, J.R. Simplot Company, Boise, Idaho; William June, Secretary, On Point Communications Strategists, Portland, Ore.; Dana Rasmussen, Treasurer, Seattle, Wash.; Scott Forrest, Forrest Paint Co., Eugene, Ore; Johanna M. Munson, EMCON Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska; Gilbert Omenn, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, Wash.; T. Murray Rankin, Arvay Finlay, Victoria, British Columbia; Alan Schuyler, ARCO Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska; Kirk Thomson, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.; Randy Tucker, OSPIRG, Portland, Ore.; and Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard, Boise, Idaho.


© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, web: www.pprc.org