Pollution Prevention Northwest
Published by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

March/April 1997


Featured Topic: Behavior Change
Introduction — Behavior Change: Overcoming Barriers to Pollution Prevention
Affecting Behavior Change
Achieving Environmental Behavior Change

Other P2 News
PPRC Adds New Features to Web Site
Pollution Prevention Digest
About this Newsletter

Behavior Change: Overcoming Barriers to Pollution Prevention

Whether you are a corporate employee championing a pollution prevention program or a government worker helping businesses change their pollution practices, being aware of the principles of behavior change is essential to affect environmental change. To get businesses to better manage their environmental issues and practice pollution prevention, you must first understand peoples' behaviors and motivations.

This issue of Pollution Prevention Northwest takes a look how the King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program in Seattle, Wash. uses some basic principles of behavior change to help its technical staff be more effective in changing the waste management and pollution prevention behavior of small and medium-size businesses. This issue also includes an article from two of Seattle's top environmental marketing professionals on their approach to achieving environmental behavior change.


Affecting Behavior Change

by Gail Savina, King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program

No matter what your feminist politics, Gloria Steinem's foray into the environmental arena offers a lesson to anyone who promotes pollution prevention. Wandering around by herself on a college geology field trip, Steinem ran across a huge snapping turtle laboriously trudging up an embankment to the road. Taking pity on the beast, she picked it up, lugged it back to the river and deposited it carefully on the shore.

Just then, her professor appeared: "Do you realize that the turtle probably spent an entire month crawling up the dirt road to lay its eggs in the mud? And you just put it back in the river." Steinem, though crushed, later recognized a critical lesson: always ask the turtle.

Pollution prevention usually means getting someone to do something differently. Change a cleaning process. Discontinue aerosols. Buy a different solvent. Like the turtle, however, most people have perfectly good reasons (at least in their own mind) for doing things a certain way.

Whether you are a corporate employee championing a pollution prevention program or a government worker helping businesses change their pollution practices, getting to know one's turtle — uh, audience — is critical to effecting a change in its behavior.

This principle, and others, are part of a growing body of research on the subject of behavior change. This article discusses some of these principles as applied to the arena of pollution prevention and waste management.

Behavior Change: Is it a Science?

Research on behavior change is found in the fields of psychology, social psychology, communication, marketing, education, health sciences, environmental science, and organizational and decision-making theory. In 1995 a project team from the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program in King County, Washington, spent several months reading behavior change literature in these fields. Insights and recurring principles that emerged from these readings were distilled into workshops for program staff. The goal was to help technical staff be more effective in changing the hazardous waste behavior of small and medium-sized businesses. Principles were applied to both pollution prevention and waste disposal situations. Ultimately, the principles were summarized in a report called Changing Behavior: Insights and Applications (call 206-689-3050 for a free copy).

Bottom Line: Information, Alone, Isn't Enough

A key insight from the behavior change project is that information by itself is not sufficient to change behavior. Douglas McKenzie-Mohr, a researcher in the field of environmental social marketing, puts it this way: "A variety of studies document that education efforts alone have little impact upon sustainable behavior." Outreach programs that begin by designing brochures, planning workshops or setting up site visits are starting at the wrong end of the process. In the majority of cases, handing someone a brochure has little impact on what they do. Because they are working backwards, these projects fail to address all the barriers besides information that stand in the way of behavior change.

Systematic Approach

A systematic approach to designing behavior change projects is more likely to be successful. Such an approach entails setting a clear objective, identifying the appropriate audience, and finding out about this group — especially their barriers to making a change. Only then, at the end of the planning process, should the strategies be determined.

1. Set a clear objective. Time spent up front to clearly define an objective pays off later with more effective outreach strategies. Typically, outcomes are framed in terms of environmental indicators. There should be a rationale for choosing the objective, and it's best if the objective is measurable. For example, several years ago wastewater at Metro (King County, Wash.) treatment plants showed spikes in mercury. This led to a project designed to reduce the amount of mercury discharged to the municipal sewer system. In the household hazardous waste area, data showed that pesticides were used by more than half of King County residents, pesticides accounted for 25-30% of disposal costs at collection facilities, and pesticide pollution was found in urban creeks. Since 1993, the Household Hazardous Waste program has been working to reduce the amount of lawn and garden pesticides used by King County residents.

2. Select the audience. Who do you need to reach to accomplish your objective? This may involve narrowing down many potential groups to the best audience. In the Metro mercury example, possible industrial dischargers were investigated and eliminated before smaller businesses were considered. In the end, dental offices were found to be a significant and identifiable source of mercury discharged to the sewer. The project decided to focus on dental offices, and even more specifically, on dentists.

In the pesticide example, surveys found that the biggest pesticide users have a household income over $50,000, live in the suburbs, and own a single-family home. As a result, the pesticide education program focuses on suburban homeowners, particularly in the east side of King County.

Selecting a single, clearly defined audience increases the likelihood that the program can be tailored for its needs. The more closely the program matches the audience, the better the chance of success.

3. Find out about the audience. How large and how homogenous is the group you chose to work with? What do they know about your issue? What are their attitudes? Who is credible to them? What are their channels of information? Are they organized into trade or professional groups? What are their current practices with regard to your issue, and what are their problems (from their point of view)?

Learning about how your audience is organized and what they think helps you develop messages and decide on strategies to convey these messages. Dentists, for example, are highly organized into national, state and local associations, each with its own publication. Most dentists belong to the association. Screen printers, on the other hand, have little formal association and instead use vendors as a conduit for information.

Focus group and phone survey data about pesticide users in King County were used to develop education strategies and messages for them. We found that pesticide users are more likely to have incomes over $50,000, be over 30 years old, be both men and women, and be both Caucasians and minorities. Beauty of the landscape is a major motivation for using pesticides, and people tend to be more concerned about health effects of pesticides than environmental effects.

Methods of finding out about an audience can be expensive, formal and statistically defensible, or they can be informal, low cost and fairly ad hoc.Phone surveys provide information that can be generalized across an audience, while focus groups allow in depth insights into points of view, attitudes and ways of thinking. Both are relatively expensive. Another method is to interview `key informants,' that is, articulate persons within the audience who can explain how members of the group think and feel about your issue. Reading publications produced by or for your audience and contacting other programs that work with the audience are also helpful and inexpensive.

After you know more about your audience, it's necessary to specifically define the behavior change you want the audience to make. What is it the audience will do, or stop doing, as a result of your program? Examples: dentists will reclaim waste amalgam at a licensed reclamation facility; homeowners will use integrated pest management techniques instead of pesticides.

4. Find out about the barriers to making the change you propose. Consider these barriers from the audience's point of view. Barriers can be personal: the audience doesn't know what to do or doesn't see the problem (knowledge), doesn't consider it a priority, thinks its too hard (motivation, attitude), or doesn't have friends doing it (social). Or the barriers can be external: making the change costs too much, alternatives aren't available, laws are conflicting, etc.

Once you have a good grasp of the reasons your audience resists the proposed change, you are ready to design a behavior change program. If the main barrier to action is lack of knowledge, an informational program may be sufficient. However, if, as in most cases, the barriers are social, attitudinal, or external, information alone won't result in change.

A survey of King County staff working with small businesses revealed that they thought cost was the main barrier to proper hazardous waste management. So King County developed a program to partially reimburse small businesses for waste management costs. However, few businesses took advantage of the program, indicating that other barriers besides cost came into play. A direct survey of businesses indicated that convenience was more important than cost.

5. Develop strategies to reach your audience. After systematically looking at the personal and external barriers facing your audience, you are ready to design a behavior change program. The aim is to overcome the most important and changeable of the barriers. The insights listed below should be taken into account when designing a program.

• Small commitments lead to bigger actions. This is the foot-in-the-door technique: get people to take one small step — sign a pledge, wear a button, make a little change — and they're likely to do more later. People who brought used motor oil to a King County collection facility were asked to sign a pledge that they would take it to a recycling service at their local auto parts store next time. Those who signed the pledge were followed up by survey. Ninety-four percent of those who had recycled their used oil had taken it to an auto parts store instead of the county facility.

• People listen first to friends, relatives or others they see as credible. Research shows that the credibility of a message depends directly on the credibility of the source. In the dental project, all educational materials were developed in conjunction with the local Dental Society, and the Society — not the county government — mailed information to local dentists. In the pesticide project, the government hazardous waste program relied on the state cooperative extension service to write newspaper columns and train Master Gardeners. Nursery staff trained in less-toxic techniques were used to educate consumers. Tours of model, non-pesticide, gardens offered citizens a chance to see their neighbors using safer methods.

• Change agents and role models are important. A few people will typically adopt innovative ideas and behaviors first, and in time, the innovations spread through the group. Focusing early program efforts on innovators or `early adopters' makes sense. In an attempt to get farmers to apply biosolids to their fields, the King County sewer utility used a few farms as pilot sites. As neighboring farmers observed the good results, demand for biosolids increased until it now exceeds available supply. In the pollution prevention arena, King County recognizes exceptional small businesses with an EnviroStars award. Competition among businesses has prompted non-EnviroStar businesses to take pollution prevention steps in order to earn the award.

• When you do present information, present it effectively. Make it vivid, personal, specific and concrete, told as a story and emotional. Pesticide ads run as bus-boards were based on the fact that the target audience cared more about health issues than environmental ones. The ad tended to be emotional, rather than logical, showing a child's hand, a ball and a lawn. Is the "Child picking up a) ball, b) pesticide, c) both."

Redirecting the Turtle

Most of us have access to some great pollution prevention ideas, but run into trouble trying to convince others to adopt them. Like the turtle, our audiences seem to have minds of their own. We may first need to change our own behavior — or at least our planning habits — by applying the behavior change principles before launching a project. Set clear objectives; take time to talk to your audience so that you don't set them back a month; systematically follow through the five steps; develop an innovative strategy based on principles proven in research; and measure your results. Help the turtle get where it needs to go.

Gail Savina is communications specialist for the King County Water and Land Resources Division of the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program in Seattle, Wash., 206-689-3062 (Gail.Savina@metrokc.gov).


Achieving Environmental Behavior Change

by Julie Colehour, Elgin DDB, and Bob Frause, KNCF/Dave Marketing Communications

Dealing with environmental concerns is still considered a nuisance for many companies. For them, principal environmental actions focus on reluctant compliance with current laws and regulations. The remainder of their efforts generally center on expensive government relations and public affairs programs to head off future environmental intrusion.

Although these practices have provided most corporations with some tangible business results, we see it as short-term thinking at best. The exclusive use of corporate resources for defensive environmental strategies is a "don't-rock-the-boat" approach that, unfortunately, will not allow the organization to take advantage of the fast-paced "new environmental context" now enveloping the U.S. and the globe. Defensive strategies, while still a necessary part of the corporate arsenal, must take a back seat to proactive and creative environmental initiatives if any firm ever expects to capture maximum potential from this new environmental world.

The Ecoself

We believe the "ecoself" is what controls corporate environmental potential, not the corporation. It's the "enviroimpact" of all people who interact with an organization and its output, day after day after day. Understanding peoples' behaviors and motivations, and how they affect the organization, is a necessary step in the quest to achieve an environmental edge.

Let's put the nature of this understanding in context. People are impacted daily by a number of constantly changing personal, social, political and economic conditions. These conditions dynamically control everyone's environmental behaviors and motivations. People do what they do because current situations force change or certain opportunities better stimulate change. The basis for most environmental change is the perception that change will make a difference for the betterment of the individual making the change. The less personal the benefit gained by an individual, the harder it is to direct that person toward a behavior with environmental messages.

In any case, dealing with change is a critical component of every corporate environmental initiative. And a prime step in understanding change is a mandatory analysis of the real and/or perceived need for environmental change and its impact on the way in which your organization currently conducts business. What your organization does environmentally is felt by all of your audiences. The guide we use to achieve motivational and behavioral environmental change is a basic four-step process.

Change = Four Steps + Timing and Resources

The process will assist you to manage your environmental marketing initiatives one by one. Keep in mind, however, that implementation of the steps is dictated by factors of time and available resources. The steps are:

1. Awareness

Motivational change begins with increasing awareness. Individuals who have already formulated opinions and reasons for their actions must be given new knowledge that will force them to question current motivations. Only then will the right conditions exist for the environmental marketer to implement the process of behavioral and habit change.

2. Commitment

Achieving the right level of awareness leaves an individual open for suggestions to change ways of thinking. A big question at this point is determining if you have achieved the right level of awareness.

Nurturing commitment requires finesse. Don't try to push too hard, too fast. Easy, simple-to-perform tasks must parallel the communications and marketing message. It may take several steps to reach the desired end, but you are nurturing commitment on the road to establishing new behaviors and habits. If an individual makes a commitment and then cannot find ways to perform desired actions, he or she will revert to old habits and newly instilled motivations will fade away.

3. Habit

Awareness and commitment lead to habit and new-found behaviors. Once you have succeeded in changing motivations and behaviors, you can concentrate on strategies and tactics that will cement new behaviors for good. Actions should focus on appropriate levels of awareness and commitment reinforcement. Heightened levels of reward for each positive action is mandatory in establishing good environmental habits.

4. Maintenance

The final stage in the process of affecting environmental change is maintenance of newly established habits. This is the stage where you can shift your resource emphasis to another environmental problem requiring motivational change. But, don't forget this step. It is important to continue stimulating environmental awareness, commitment and habit for a long period of time. New circumstances, new information and competitive messages seeking still other changes in one's motivations will constantly bombard these individuals. You've got to stay with them if you want to keep them hooked.

Achieving Environmental Behavior Change: The Story of Five Greens

Timing and resources allocation play important roles in executing our suggested four steps to change. Resource allocation is an internal problem that is outside of our ability to provide appropriate insight or advise. Corporate environmental commitment must be more than words and philosophy.

Environmental commitment means action, and action demands adequate resources to deliver on environmental promises. Given adequate resources to pursue environmental initiatives, your focus is narrowed to three areas of consideration: How much? When? and Where?

Understanding people and learning how to deal with their behaviors and motivations may well focus on how we view them individually over a continuum of time, which for the purposes of this analysis roughly adds up to a day. What's important here is understanding the context or aperture in which you are communicating and marketing environmental ideas. It is definitely as important as the communication itself.

Perhaps you should not think of an individual as one person. A person may act like as many as five or more different individuals during the day. Follow us though this hypothetical, but probably all too real story.

Mr. Green has become aware that the environment is in trouble and people's unthoughtful actions are responsible for the problem. Green is a responsible individual, and he decides it's time to personally shape up his environmental act. He begins by making a commitment to recycle as much of his trash as possible. He even convinces his family that it is the right thing to do. He is very dedicated to recycling and even proclaims to be shopping for products that are recyclable, contain recycled content and are packaged more efficiently. His "ecoself" motivational influences are definitely at work.

That's Green at home. When he leaves, Green becomes individual number two. Green "2" is influenced by different surroundings. At his neighbors, Green has a can of pop. But Green's neighbor hates recycling and doesn't do it. Unless Green takes the empty pop can home, he can't act on his environmental commitment to recycle. Green throws the can in the garbage because the support system was not in place. We thought Green was headed in the right environmental direction but his "Throw it away," socially influenced, disposal motivations were stronger than the newly acquired "Recycling for the environment motivations."

Now Green goes down to the store and becomes Mr. Green "3". At home he said that he was making a concerted effort to buy products that were environmentally correct. But when confronted with two identical products packaged differently, Green picked the one without recyclable packaging because it was a lot cheaper. His economically-influenced motivation definitely prevailed.

Time for Green to go to work. Meet Green "4". His company doesn't do much environmentally. No recycling, some environmental compliance, but that's it. Does Green "4" bring his home-based recycling ethic to work? He tries, but is met with stiff resistance from the office manager, who says that the current janitorial contract won't allow for recycling. He is also told that the building doesn't have a program and the landlord says he can't find anybody to take the stuff anyway. Green "4" drops the environmental initiative and throws his stuff away like everyone else does. Politically influenced motivations were more powerful than Green's still weak, newly acquired environmental motivations.

Green "5" starts his job. He is in charge of purchasing for the company. He is proud of the fact that he's been able to buy quality products at rock bottom prices. He is commended by the president of the company for his good business sense. The president suggests that everyone follow Green's good example. Of course, none of the products Green is buying have any recycled content. And, several of the companies from which Green buys products have well-known poor environmental records. Green has looked into the recycled stuff but company policy says you have to buy the best at the cheapest prices. Green thinks that recycled products cost more and aren't as good. So there you have it, Green "5" isn't about to make environmental waves, even if he thinks of himself as a good environmentalist at home. Once again, political and economic influences are the action motivators.

Green "5" could just as well be in production or in management at his company. He will still be confronted with the same situation regarding environmental issues. And the same action will occur over and over again. Green will compromise his new environmental ethic because he has no support.

Green "5" leaves work and goes home. Now he's Green "1" and he feels like he is finally able to do the right thing again. The paradoxical point of the whole story it that Green drove everywhere that day in his car by himself. He had given little or no consideration to any other environmental consequences of his daily actions. He may have even poured motor oil down the storm drain...Who knows?

In summary, the point of the Five Greens story is that circumstantial situations influence behavior as much as the messages that need to be delivered to affect change. Results will occur only when environmental messages are tailored to meet recipients who are in the right frame of mind and who have access to a high level of developed support. This will help them retain the information and motivate them to act on the environmental marketing message, therefore, moving them through the four-step change process.

Julie Colehour is a vice president at Elgin DDB in Seattle, Wash. and the manager of the agency's environmental communications division called the Strategic Environmental Marketing Group, 206-621-6481 (colehour@elgin.com). Bob Frause is a managing partner at KNCF/Dave Marketing Communications in Seattle, Wash., 206-292-2793, ext. 201 (kncf@kncf.com).


PPRC Adds New Features to Web Site

The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) has unveiled two new areas on its Web site: the Northwest Business Assistance Network and the Northwest Pollution Prevention Calendar.

As always, the PPRC has designed these sites to be accessible to as many people as possible, which means the use of graphics is limited and not required to view the site.

The PPRC thanks Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for its technical assistance and donated server space to support these Web efforts.

Northwest Business Assistance Network

For the last few months, the PPRC has been creating resources to help Northwest businesses comply with environmental regulations and prevent pollution. These materials are now available on the internet as part of the PPRC's Northwest Business Assistance Network!

The resources are designed for small businesses and technical assistance providers to improve the delivery of information on multi-media issues (hazardous waste, water quality, air quality) and the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) to Northwest small businesses.

The online materials include CAAA-related fact sheets, industry sector workbooks, and interactive self-help tools. Specific information is available for four featured industry areas: printing, wood furniture manufacturing, metal fabrication and fiberglass fabrication. The Northwest Business Assistance Network also includes contact points so users can get additional information, as well as links to a wide variety of federal government-sponsored home pages.

The Northwest Business Assistance Network area of the PPRC Web site is supported by the Small Business Assistance Programs in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

For more information, contact Chris Wiley at 206-352-2050 (cwiley@pprc.org).


Northwest Pollution Prevention Calendar

The PPRC Web site also features an online calendar of pollution prevention events. The calendar includes select conferences, seminars, meetings and other activities of interest to business, government, and citizens in the Northwest who are concerned about pollution prevention. Most of the events featured in the calendar will occur in the Northwest, although national events of interest to Northwesterners will also be listed. The site also includes archives of past events.

If you would like to suggest an event for the calendar, contact Crispin Stutzman at 206-352-2050 (cstutzman@pprc.org).


Pollution Prevention Digest

It's the Law(yers)!

The Law Firm Waste Reduction Network recently released a booklet and computer disk package called "The Case for Waste Prevention: A How to Guidebook By and For Legal Professionals" to help educate law firms about source reduction, recycling, and recycled-content purchasing. The Network consists of attorneys and staff from about 15 of Seattle's law firms, along with representatives from several local government agencies.

The packages include instructions for conducting waste audits, sample reports to management, suggestions for recycling program improvements, and posters with copying tips to be placed near photocopiers.

For a copy of the guidebook, contact Jan Kraft at 206-270-8918 or Perry Weinberg at 206-623-7580.


Learn About the Natural Step

The Natural Step is a framework of scientifically-based principles to guide businesses, institutions and communities toward greater sustainability. The Northwest Earth Institute, Portland General Electric, NIKE, Inc., Wacker Siltronics and Bank of America are sponsoring a training workshop to acquaint Northwest business, government and community leaders with these principles. The workshop will be held in Beaverton, Ore. on June 6.

Space at the workshop is limited, and the registration deadline is May 23. Registration fees range from $100 to $150.

For more information, contact Jeanne Roy at 503-244-0026.


Environmental Cost Accounting

Financial and environmental managers in the private sector can learn more about environmental cost accounting (ECA) at a one-day training workshop.

The training will address: the benefits and costs of ECA; experience of facilities in the use of ECA; contingent environmental costs or liabilities (such as insurance costs); computer programs to incorporate ECA information in the evaluation of potential capital investments; and the relation of ECA to other environmental accounting and management tools (such as life cycle cost analysis and environmental management systems).

The training will be offered in two locations — April 24 in Spokane, Wash. and April 25 in Tacoma, Wash. — and is sponsored by the Washington Department of Ecology and the Institute of Management Accountants.

For more information, contact Jerry Parker at 360-407-6750.


Energy-Efficiency & Pollution Prevention Financing Workshop

"Innovative Financing Results" is a one-day workshop intended for small- and medium-size businesses, the financial community and technical providers to learn about examples of financing for energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects, including conventional loans, leased equipment, financing through insurance companies, and performance contracting.

In addition to innovative financing examples, pollution prevention software and accounting techniques will be demonstrated and distributed to analyze potential energy-efficiency projects. The workshop includes panel discussions, question-and-answer sessions and one-on-one discussions.

The workshop is sponsored by the Department of Energy. The registration fee is $45 and attendees should pre-register by May 1.

For more information, contact Jerry Kotas at 303-275-4714. To register, contact John Beldock at 800-368-7587.


Best Management Practices Guide for Auto Shops

Oregon's Pollution Prevention Outreach Team recently published "Keep Your Shop in Tune: A Best Management Practices Guide for Automotive Industries."

The manual discusses how to handle a variety of liquid, solid and airborne wastes that may or may not be classified as hazardous and addresses pollution control, as well as pollution prevention.

The Pollution Prevention Outreach Team is a multi-agency cooperative group in the Portland region composed of regulators and specialists on hazardous waste, solid waste, storm water management, household hazardous waste, waste reduction and recycling.

Topics covered in the manual include changing automotive fluids, air conditioning repair, cleaning equipment and parts, body work, storing batteries, selecting and controlling inventory, and more.

For more information, or to receive a free copy, contact Dawn Hottenroth at 503-823-7767 (dawnh@bessky.gate.bes.portland.or.us).


Timber Certification Program

How can YOU preserve Washington's working forests and improve the economy? Beginning this summer, you will be able to buy wood and forest products that have been environmentally certified as "green" products — made from wood grown with a minimum of chemicals, harvested with selective cutting methods, and grown using other forest management practices that strive to protect the environment.

The Olympic Peninsula Foundation in Port Townsend, Wash. won an EPA Sustainable Development Grant to bring "Smart Wood," the international environmental certification program, to Washington. The program will allow consumers to choose certified sustainably grown wood and wood products, and may also give foresters an incentive to improve management practices and reduce chemical use, nonpoint source pollution and soil erosion.

The foundation, working with the Institute for Sustainable Forestry, government representatives, forest managers, and others, is currently establishing the criteria to judge whether forest practices are "certifiable."

For more information, contact Larry Nussbaum at 360-379-9421 (larry@seeport.com).


8th Annual P2 Expo: Environmental Forum for Business & Trade Show

This event aims to provide regional businesses in Washington, Montana, Idaho and Oregon with the latest information, technology and training in pollution prevention techniques.

The Expo will feature four concurrent conferences — Designing and Building for the Next Century: Architecture and Construction for a Resource-Efficient Future; Growth Management and Sustainability: Triumphs & Challenges; Inland Northwest Water Resources Conference; and Northwest Industrial Energy Forum — and a trade show with industry-specific seminar tracks for heavy industry, general business, health care, safety and automotive businesses.

The Expo will be on April 28-30 in Spokane, Wash. To register, call 800-325-7328 or visit the Web site (http://www.aiin.com/expo/index.html). For more information, call Lucy Forman Gurnea at 509-323-2641 or visit the Web site.


Recycling Financing Guide

The new EPA publication "A Financing Guide for Recycling Businesses: Investment Forums, Meetings and Networks" can assist small and start-up recycling businesses and recycling market-development officials in obtaining financing.

The guide is intended to help recycling businesses, especially those that seek to utilize recycled materials in manufacturing new products.

To receive a free copy of the guide, contact the EPA/RCRA hotline at 800-424-9346 or it may be viewed or downloaded from the internet (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/recycle/finguide/index.htm).


Online Sustainability Magazine

The "Better World 'Zine" is an online magazine that features progressive articles on sustainability and its implications for business.

The magazine is published every two to three months, and each issue includes a cover story and four featured areas, as well as a book review, and letters to the editor. The information is designed to help readers make informed, responsible decisions about how to interact with the environment and the community.

The magazine is free to read online (http://www.betterworld.com/BWZ).


Editor & Designer: Kristi Thorndike
Technical Editors: Madeline M. Sten and David Leviten
Web Version Format by: Crispin Stutzman

Pollution Prevention Northwest is published bimonthly by the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. To receive a free subscription (please specify electronic or hard copy), link to the newsletter order form or contact the PPRC, 1326 Fifth Ave.,
Suite 650, Seattle, Washington 98101
Phone: 206-352-2050; Fax: 206-352-2049
E-mail: office@pprc.org

About this Newsletter

Articles from this newsletter may be printed or distributed electronically only in their entirety with written permission from the PPRC. Please credit the author (if any), followed by "Pollution Prevention Northwest, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center."

Advisory Board
Pat Barclay, Idaho Council on Industry and the Environment; Scott Butner, Battelle Seattle Research Center; Fred Claggett, Environment Canada; Jim Craven, American Electronics Association; Gil Omenn, University of Washington School of Public Health; and Kathy Vega, U.S. Department of Energy.

About the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center

The Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC) is a nonprofit organization formed to identify opportunities and overcome obstacles to pollution prevention implementation in the Pacific Northwest. Headquartered in Seattle, Wash., the PPRC serves Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

Financial support for the PPRC is broad-based, with contributions from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, the Northwest states and British Columbia, The Boeing Company, Intel Corporation and the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable. The PPRC accepts environmental settlement moneys to further its work on pollution prevention.

Significant in-kind support has been provided by organizations such as: Hewlett-Packard Company, Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Seattle Research Center, Microsoft Corporation, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd. and Perkins Coie.

Staff: Madeline M. Sten, Executive Director; David Leviten, Technical Director; Kristi Thorndike, Communications Director; Chris Wiley, Small Business Liaison; Scott Allison, Business Manager; Crispin Stutzman, Research Associate; and Eric Creighton, Administrative Assistant.

Board of Directors: Rodney L. Brown, President, Marten & Brown, LLP, Seattle, Wash.; Joan Cloonan, Vice President, J.R. Simplot Company, Boise, Idaho; Esther C. Wunnicke, Vice President, Alaska Common Ground, Anchorage, Alaska; William June, Secretary, On Point Communications Strategists, Portland, Ore.; Fielding Formway, Treasurer, ARCO (ret.), Bellingham, Wash.; Richard Bach, Stoel Rives, LLP, Portland, Ore.; Gordon R. Bopp, Environmental Technologies and Educational Services Co., Richland, Wash.; Jean R. Cameron, States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force, Portland, Ore.; R. Scott Forrest, Forrest Paint Company, Eugene, Ore.; Johanna M. Munson, EMCON Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska; Gilbert Omenn, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, Wash.; T. Murray Rankin, Arvay Finlay, Victoria, British Columbia; Dana Rasmussen, US WEST Communications, Seattle, Wash.; Kirk Thomson, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Wash.; and Forrest Whitt, Hewlett-Packard, Boise, Idaho.


© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, web: www.pprc.org