Pollution Prevention Roundtable
Table of Contents
Goals and Audiences
December 7 Session:
P2 Projects Showcase
Clean Air EnviroStars
Whatcom County Watersheds
Rehab the Labs
EMS Alternative to P2 Planning
December 8 Session:
Welcome and Introductions
Right Tool for the Right Job
Top Five Issues
Building Effective Partnerships: The Nuts and Bolts
Neighborhood Power Project
Soils for Salmon
Priority Sector Targeting
Seattle-King County Public Health Dept
WA Dept. of Ecology PBT Program
December 9 Session:
Plenary Speaker: Northwest Council on Climate Change
P2, Energy and Sustainability: The Big Picture
Earth Day 2000
Collaboration Opportunities for P2 Programs
Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance
Resource Efficiency Program
Sustainable Building 1
Sustainable Building 2
List of Attendees
GOALS AND AUDIENCES
Summary of Goals
- Day One: Share information about pollution prevention projects, including outcomes, lessons learned, and future plans.
- Day Two: Explore perspectives on optimal use of enforcement and technical assistance tools to achieve positive environmental outcomes; build awareness of top issues among various media; learn how effective partnerships are created and managed; identify methods for selecting sectors for focusing technical assistance and/or enforcement efforts.
- Day Three: Examine the connections among energy, climate, and pollution prevention; explore opportunities for technical assistance providers to enhance the value of their services through partnerships between energy and P2 service providers.
Audience: Pollution prevention technical assistance providers (TAPs), P2 program managers, compliance assistance providers, energy and manufacturing assistance providers.
Tuesday, December 7 1999
P2 Projects Showcase
EPA Region 10
Portland Bureau of Environmental Services
The Bottom Line
The Eco-Logical Business program recognizes auto service businesses that voluntarily protect the environment. Businesses receive comprehensive technical assistance that covers all environmental media and energy.
Kelly Hendryx: The Eco-Logical Business program recognizes auto repair and auto body businesses in the Portland area that implement "beyond compliance" pollution prevention practices and go through a certification process. The program provides comprehensive technical assistance covering energy, stormwater, air quality, hazardous waste, solid waste, pretreatment and recycling for businesses to become certified. Shops that win certification, which is good for three years, can display Eco-Logical Business stickers. The program is coordinated by the Portland area "P2O" team, representing cities, counties, Unified Sewerage Agency, Metro, and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
The program started operating in the fall of 1999. So far, 20 shops have been certified and 20 more are going through the certification process. Participants must implement all required measures and 80 percent of recommended measures.
Examples of measures implemented by participants include the following:
- Hazardous Materials Management: Secondary spill containment, paint thinner recovery, anti-freeze recycling.
- Oil: Capture of waste oil residue from filters and containers, use of re-refined motor oil.
- Water Quality: Wash water recycling, oil-water separators, stenciled storm drains
- Air Quality: Overspray capture, paint mixing in fume hoods
- Cleaning: Solvent parts washer with closed-loop recycling, detergent parts washer
- Materials Management: Barcode inventory tracking, just-in-time inventory management
- Training: Staff meetings, MSDS books, hazardous materials training, employee manuals
- Energy: Energy-efficient lighting, use of low-mercury fluorescent lamps.
The program works with auto service trade associations to market the program to businesses. Partners include the Pacific Automotive Trades Association, Automotive Service Association, AAA of Oregon/Idaho, and Oregon State Public Interest Research Group.
Notices have been sent to neighborhoods promoting certified businesses to potential customers, and radio advertising is planned.
(To find out more about the Eco-Logical Business Program, visit http://www.ecobiz.org.)
Clean Air EnviroStars
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency
The Bottom Line
Clean Air EnviroStars program is a cooperative effort that allows two agencies to better focus their resources on accomplishing their missions, and rewards businesses that go beyond compliance to implement pollution prevention practices.
EnviroStar checklists, Clean Air EnviroStar self-certification checklist
Mike Schultz: Clean Air EnviroStars is a cooperative pilot project of the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency and King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program. Implementing the Clean Air Enviro Stars program has been both rewarding and frustrating. A lot of compromise and concessions by both agencies have been necessary to get the program off the ground, but the benefits were worth the effort.
EnviroStars is a voluntary program operated by King County and three other western Washington counties to recognize small businesses which properly manage and minimize hazardous waste. Businesses can earn ratings ranging from two to five stars, depending on the extent of pollution prevention measures that they undertake. Numerous types of businesses have been recognized. (To find out more about EnviroStars, visit http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/estars.)
EnviroStars and the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency began a three-year experimental partnership to offer incentives to auto body shops that have earned four or five-star EnviroStar ratings. The clean air agency entered into the partnership for the following reasons:
- To achieve emissions reductions and improved compliance with air quality laws
- To focus the agency's resources more effectively
- To reward businesses that are environmental achievers
- To avoid re-inventing the wheel
The clean air agency has only three inspectors to keep tabs on 2,500 auto body shops, dry cleaners and gas stations in its four-county jurisdiction. It doesn't make sense to expend inspection resources on businesses that are strong environmental performers. Instead, resources should be focused on businesses that need technical assistance and/or enforcement attention.
For the clean air agency, EnviroStars offered an established recognition program to build on. For EnviroStars, the clean air agency offered another environmental medium to expand into, plus funding.
Auto body repair was chosen because the sector has both hazardous waste and air quality issues. There are more than 500 auto body shops in the Puget Sound area, plus there are trade associations that the two agencies could work with as a partner. The associations are the Automotive Service Association and the Auto Body Craftsmen Association.
Four and five-star shops that participate in the partnership program are not subject to regular air inspections and receive an 80 percent reduction in their annual air permit registration fees. Shops also receive free technical assistance and "green" marketing.
Goals of the program are to recruit 50 to 100 participating shops and participants from all four counties, and to create "environmental converts" within the industry.
As of December 1999, 500 shops had been notified about the program and 40 inquiries received. Nine shops had received $200 refunds on their air permit registration fees, and 20 articles had been published about the project. Technical assistance is to be carried out by EnviroStars staff trained by the clean air agency.
There have been problems to overcome. Some of the shops that qualified to participate were not interested. The reason is that they're well run shops, have all the business they need, and don't need additional marketing assistance. Only 25 percent of the shops in the area belong to a trade association, making them more difficult to reach in marketing efforts. There are cultural differences between the agencies. Since the clean air agency has a regulatory focus, it looks for measurability in programs. As a result, one outcome of the two agencies’ work together is that the EnviroStars rating system will become more quantified.
(To read a brief article about the Clean Air EnviroStars project, see the Spring 1999 edition of Pollution Prevention Northwest at http://www.pprc.org/pprc/pubs/newslets/newssp99.html.)
Northwest Dry Cleaners Association
The Bottom Line
A government agency and a trade association are working cooperatively to persuade hundreds of Puget Sound area dry cleaners to invest in technologies that reduce emissions of perchloroethylene, or "perc."
Jin Kim:The Northwest Dry Cleaners Association has been working with the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency for the past decade to educate dry cleaners about improving their environmental performance. Kim speaks both English and Korean, and consequently can help the clean air agency surmount language and cultural barriers in reaching out to Korean-owned dry cleaning shops. About 70 percent of the dry cleaning shops in the Puget Sound area are owned by Koreans or Korean-Americans.
Kim has visited 550 shops in the Puget Sound area to encourage them to upgrade to closed-loop cleaning machines that prevent exposure of perchloroethylene ("perc") to the air. Perc is a halogenated solvent that is listed as one of 188 hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act, and is considered a potential human carcinogen by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. In his visits, Kim also covers other environmental issues, including occupational health and groundwater.
Most of the shops have responded positively to Kim's visits. Of the 550 shops, only about 40 to 50 were still using old "transfer" equipment that allows perc to be exposed to the air when clothes are transferred from washing to drying machines. Under a clean air agency regulation, transfer machines could no longer be operated after Dec. 31, 1999.
Dry cleaners have reduced their use of perc as a result of machine technology improvements that boosted solvent "mileage" ( the amount of clothing cleaned per gallon of solvent).
Wet cleaning is an option for eliminating perc emissions, but not all garments can be cleaned in the wet process. An additional concern for shops is price.
Wet Cleaning Resource
Alternative Clothes Cleaning Page
Center for Neighborhood Technology
Whatcom County Watersheds
Bruce Barbour and Dave Misko
Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology)
360-738-6249, 425-649-7014, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Bottom Line
The Whatcom County Watershed program takes a comprehensive, cooperative approach to encouraging household and business behavior changes that protect drinking water and salmon resources.
Household and business pledges, newsletter, progress report, Lake Whatcom Watershed Survey
Dave Misko and Bruce Barbour: The Whatcom County Watershed Project was established to foster behavior change in order to reduce pollution and allow salmon to thrive in the Whatcom Creek and Lake Whatcom watersheds. Lake Whatcom is the Bellingham area's drinking water resource. The program takes a watershed-based, multi-media, preventive approach that takes into account the sociology of behavior change, builds in feedback and continuous improvement, and sets priorities.
A key insight is that behavior change is more likely to come about if the message is delivered by people the target audiences find trustworthy.
Ecology worked cooperatively with local stakeholders to form residential and business teams that developed voluntary pledge programs. The residential pledge sought pollution reduction actions involving lawn care practices, stormwater runoff, and household hazardous materials use. The business pledge sought stormwater P2 and reduction of solid and hazardous waste.
Pledges were taken by 530 households and 307 businesses. An institutional pledge was taken by Ecology's Bellingham office and the city of Bellingham. A directory of businesses that have taken the pledge was prepared. The pledge program has been adopted by the Whatcom County cities of Lynden, Nooksack, Everson and Sumas, and the Bellingham-Whatcom County Chamber of Commerce.
A followup telephone survey found that 40 percent to 50 percent of respondents had made some behavior changes, such as eliminating pesticides and fertilizers that can wash into the creek. It was apparent from the survey that people understood the connection between lawn care practices and the health of Whatcom Creek. Ninety-six percent of surveyed businesses indicated they want to do the right thing.
To characterize watershed ecology and assess the impacts of the pledge programs, water and sediments were sampled for the presence of toxic chemicals, metals and pesticides. Whatcom Creek's biology also was monitored. In the spring of 1999, sampling revealed the presence of baby chinook salmon. The presence of stone flies was noted, an indicator that salmon habitat and the creek food web was improving. In June 1999, however, the nearby Olympic Pipeline ruptured, spilling 270,000 gallons of gasoline. The subsequent explosion incinerated a mile and a half of the creek’s riparian corridor, killing three people and destroying all fish in the vicinity of the spill and fire.
A long-term restoration plan was begun, including expansion of a downtown "salmon park." The project was awarded a $500,000 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service grant to buy five acres in the watershed, which will supplement 50 acres the city of Bellingham has committed for the park.
The pledge program has drawn the attention of other communities in the Northwest. Similar projects are being implemented by the cities of Victoria, Burnaby and Abbottsford in British Columbia. In Oregon, the Department of Environmental Quality is implementing a similar project near Salem.
- Cast a large net. Be inclusive and open to ideas from diverse parties.
- Survey the watershed to identify problems and solutions.
- Leave egos at the door. Learn from others.
- Recruit champions.
- Use adaptive management. Be flexible.
- The project is locally based and can only be sustained locally.
Discussion Question: How can the program verify that people who take the pledge actually implement behavior changes? Is there monitoring or statistical analysis to verify what's happening?
Answer: The project is designed to promote long-term behavior change. People won't listen to state government officials, but they will listen to their neighbors. Households that took the pledge have been mapped using a GIS. Pledged households are clumped together, indicating the influence of neighbors.
(To read about the Service and Quality Improvement Award that Washington Governor Gary Locke gave to the pledge program, visit http://www.wa.gov/ecology/pie/1999news/99-226.html.)
Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC)
The Bottom Line
PPRC worked cooperatively with fiberglass fabrication, paint and coating manufacturing, and metal machining sectors to develop synthesized, regularly updated information resources that describe regulatory perspectives and pollution prevention opportunities.
Chris Wiley: PPRC is an information wholesaler, a matchmaker, researcher, and networker, with the goal of getting P2 information into the hands of business decision-makers.
As a wholesaler and researcher, PPRC synthesizes information for the use of information retailers, such as technical assistance providers. As a matchmaker and networker, PPRC can refer inquiries to people with specialized knowledge, acting as the wires of a P2 communications network.
PPRC developed "living document" information resources for the fiberglass fabrication, paint and coating manufacturing, and metal machining sectors. The documents, updated regularly, provide information about regulatory requirements and pollution prevention opportunities. Case studies, vendors, links to relevant projects in PPRC's Research Projects Database, and links to industry expertise are provided also. PPRC works in partnership with industry, and state and local governments to prepare the resources. The documents also serve as a home for information that TAPs have gathered in sector outreach projects.
PPRC markets the resources to trade associations and trade journals. For example, the fiberglass document was featured in the December 1998 edition of the Journal of Reinforced Plastics, which has about 8,500 subscribers worldwide.
Visit the Living Documents Fiberglass Fabrication: http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/fiber.html Paint and Coating Manufacturing: http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/painting.html Metal Machining: http://www.pprc.org/pprc/sbap/machine.html
Rehab the Labs
King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP)
The Bottom Line
Rehab the Labs is a technical assistance project that helps junior high and high school science labs dispose of surplus, dangerous chemicals, and properly manage chemicals that will be retained for classroom use.
Rehab the Labs booklet, lab chemical disposal information sheet
Dave Waddell: It's not unusual to find poorly managed, dangerous chemicals in junior high and high school science labs. Teachers often are not aware of the hazards the chemicals pose to them and their students. Hazardous chemicals found in school labs include:
- Explosives: Potassium, ether, picric acid, sodium azide, perchloric acid
- Water Reactives: Potassium, sodium, lithium, sodium peroxide
- Corrosives: Nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, bromine
- Carcinogens: Arsenic, cadmium, formaldehyde, mercury
Here are two examples of the hazards posed by poorly managed chemicals in school labs.
Hydrofluoric Acid: This corrosive is readily absorbed by the skin, but pain is not apparent until it starts dissolving bone tissue. Hydrofluoric acid is present in about half the schools King County hazardous waste staff has visited. The acid is used in art programs as a glass etchant, and typically, no protective equipment is worn. (For more information about the hazards of hydrofluoric acid, visit http://www.princeton.edu/~ehs/labguide/sec-1e.htm#HF.)
Perchloric Acid: This corrosive readily oxidizes with organic materials and can explode on contact with heat or certain metals. (For more information about the hazards of perchloric acid, visit http://www.ab.ust.hk/sepo/tips/ls/ls011.htm.)
Compressed gases, such as chlorine, that are stored in lecture bottles are another serious danger, especially when the valves have rusted and the bottles are not labeled properly or not labeled at all. One lecture bottle with chlorine could conceivably kill everyone in a school. Breathing chlorine could result in a lifelong case of chemical pneumonia, caused when hydrochloric acid forms inside the lungs.
Other examples of chemicals found in schools: White phosphorus is a pyrophoric chemical, meaning it can ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air. Potassium is a water reactive that forms shock-sensitive crystals. Chloroform can produce phosgene, an acute inhalation hazard, as it ages.
Properly disposing of surplus, dangerous chemicals is very costly. Unlabeled lecture bottles containing chlorine cost $5,000 to $7,000 each to dispose of.
Chemical management problems seen in schools include:
- Improper disposal
- Storage of incompatible chemicals
- Poor quality containers
- Degraded chemicals
- Excessive chemicals
- Poorly designed facilities
Poor labeling is another problem. Here are two examples that have been seen on field visits: "Bad Stuff NOS" (not otherwise specified), and "Sugar," which turned out to be explosive sodium crystals.
Rehab the Labs has several goals. They include:
- Work with the whole school.
- Eliminate old stockpiles of lab chemicals, with the county paying 100 percent of the disposal costs. Schools are eligible for cost sharing for disposal of chemicals used in art studios, vocational education, janitorial work, and grounds maintenance.
- Reduce hazardous waste generation by promoting microscale course work.
- Improve chemical storage practices, with chemicals stored compatibly
- Encourage long-term incorporation of P2 practices
An important element of bringing about long-term behavior change is to obtain buy-in at all levels in the school organization. This is done by asking district officials, principals and teachers to sign pledges to improve hazardous chemical management. Payment for disposal of chemicals is made only after pledges are signed. Technical assistance helps schools act on the pledges.
As of December 1999, the county had carried out 71 site visits to 52 schools, and had marked more than 5,000 containers for disposal. A total of 21 drums containing 1,000 pounds had been shipped for disposal.
A total of $220,000 will be available for chemical shipments in 2000 and $150,000 in 2001.
By 2001, the county's goal is to have visited more than 100 schools, shipped 100,000 containers for disposal, shipped 1,000 pounds of high-risk chemicals for disposal, and to have obtained pledges from 100 schools.
The county is encouraging schools to move toward microscale chemistry instruction. The volumes of chemicals handled go down by factors of 10 to 100, resulting in reduced costs, less danger and less liability.
(For an on-line copy of the Rehab the Labs booklet, visit http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/rehab/rehab.pdf.)
Laboratory P2 Resources
General Laboratory Safety
University of British Columbia, Department of Health, Safety and Environment
National Microscale Chemistry Center
The Bottom Line
GEMStars recognizes Idaho companies, agencies and organizations that implement P2 measures.
GEMStars information packet
Heather Cataldo: GEMStars was conceived in 1997 when then-Governor Phil Batt proposed a P2 incentive program. The program was developed by a geographically diverse steering committee with government and business representatives, and is administered through PPRC. Participating companies are eligible for GEMStars recognition if they implement at least 12 of 19 "initial tier" criteria covering solid waste reduction, toxics use reduction, and energy and water efficiency.
So far, 15 companies, agencies and organizations have signed up to participate. The goal is to have 50 participants meeting initial tier criteria by September 2000. Recruitment began in November 1999.
GEMStars that want to go further can implement additional P2 measures to obtain middle and highest tier recognition. The latter is awarded exclusively by the governor.
Participants recognized as GEMStars will be eligible to use the GEMStars logo in company advertising and window decals. They will be promoted through media events and at local business functions, such as chamber of commerce luncheons.
The program is housed directly in the governor's office instead of within the Division of Environmental Quality. Having the governor's imprimatur on the program helps open doors for marketing.
Initial funding was provided from proceeds of a civil penalty paid by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Cash and in-kind support is provided by Idaho State University, the University of Idaho and Boise State University. Secure funding is available through August 2000. Potential sources for obtaining additional funding include supplemental environmental projects, grants, and private sponsors.
Program promotion and recruitment of participants is being carried out through contacts with chambers of commerce, the state's 64 cooperative extension offices, and city and county associations. The program has prepared articles for trade journals, newsletters, web pages and other media. Other promotional materials may include a brochure, paid advertising, and a display booth.
Long-range objectives include obtaining support from the Legislature, having the program administered by an Idaho entity, and greening up the state's procurement policies.
EMS Alternative to P2 Planning
Washington Department of Ecology
The Bottom Line
Businesses and organizations subject to Washington's P2 planning requirements can adopt environmental management systems as an alternative. Participants are using the EMS approach to prevent pollution and improve resource efficiency.
Rob Reuter:In 1997, the Washington Department of Ecology gave businesses subject to P2 planning requirements the option of submitting environmental management system (EMS) documentation in lieu of P2 plans. Ecology's EMS requirements are similar to the ISO 14001 EMS standard, but there are important differences. One difference is that Ecology defines P2 as reducing and eliminating pollution at the source, whereas ISO includes control and treatment in its definition of P2.
An advantage that the EMS option has over the standard P2 plans is that goals and programs are set every year instead of every five years.
Examples of P2 achievements by businesses and agencies that have taken the EMS option include:
- Naval Station Everett: Implementation of plastic media blasting for paint stripping, switch to solvent-free powder coating, reuse of shop towels through a contract with a commercial laundry firm.
- Subase Bangor: Hazardous chemicals in use were reduced from 7,000 to 800; hazardous materials are tracked and controlled through a pharmacy; the base joined the ClimateWise program to improve energy efficiency; seven acres of maintenance-intensive turf were replaced with a native forest; employee training was implemented.
- Seattle City Light: The utility sold its share of the Centralia Power Plant, the largest coal-fired power plant in the Northwest; plastic liners for utility poles are being piloted to avoid use of the hazardous preservative pentachlorophenol; training and materials tracking were implemented.
- Intalco: This ISO 14001-certified aluminum smelting plant minimized emissions of fluoride dust from its baghouse by reducing the size of the baghouse door.
- Rudd Company: This paint manufacturer reduced hazardous waste generation by 61 percent; 50 percent of its product sales are water-based coatings.
- BF Goodrich Aerospace: Use of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), a cleaning solvent and hazardous air pollutant, was eliminated, and materials are tracked with bar codes.
- Northwest Composites: This aerospace subcontractor uses reusable containers for shipping aircraft parts, saving $50,000 to $60,000 per month in packaging costs. A tracking system for perishable composites was implemented, saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in product losses annually.
- Hytek Finishes: Installed zero discharge metal finishing facility, tied EMS into ISO 9000-certified quality management system.
- Advanced Technology Laboratories: This medical equipment manufacturer established benchmarking for solid waste; reduced hazardous waste; "green" building is saving $50,000 per year in operating costs.
- Canyon Creek Cabinet Co.: Eliminated hazardous air pollutants; implemented employee training; adopted tracking system for hazardous materials.
- Hexcel: This composites manufacturer achieved a 94 percent reduction in MEK usage; implemented P2 training; achieved 54 percent employee participation in commute trip reduction
Standard components of the EMS' are tracking, benchmarking, training and education. Waste, energy, commute trip reduction, and habitat restoration are issues that the EMS may cover.
(To find out more about Ecology’s EMS alternative for P2 planning, contact Dave Zink at 360-407-6752 for a copy of Publication No. 97-401, "Environmental Management System (EMS) Alternative to Pollution Prevention Planning.")
ISO 14001 Pilot Projects
Environmental Law Institute
Wednesday, December 8 1999
Welcome and IntroductionsThe second day of the roundtable was opened by Madeline Sten, executive director of the Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center (PPRC). Sten said a goal of the roundtable is to help technical assistance providers (TAPs) work smarter, not harder. By focusing on comprehensive service delivery and tapping into the expertise of others as well as their own expertise, TAPs can enhance the value of their services.
The Right Tool for the Right JobFacilitator:
Ross and Associates
Washington Department of Ecology
EPA Region 10
EPA Region 10
King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency
Panel of Questioners:
Simpson Tacoma Kraft Company
representing Puget Soundkeeper Alliance
The Bottom Line
- Finding the right balance among compliance assistance, technical assistance and enforcement depends on individual situations.
- Campaigns that integrate enforcement, education and technical assistance are most effective.
"Clean Water Act Permit Violations," Puget Soundkeeper Alliance report
PresentationsTom Eaton: Any successful strategy to improve compliance must start with goals. What are the desired results? Which pollutants are being targeted? Which regulations come into play? What's the compliance status of your target audience?
Lane Nothman: There are no definitive answers to striking the right balance among compliance assistance, P2 technical assistance and enforcement. The right balance depends on individual situations.
Two examples illustrate how Ecology has worked to find the right mix of tools for achieving environmental results.
- Underground Storage Tanks – About 15 years ago, Washington enacted a law regulating underground storage tanks. The law covered many small, previously unregulated facilities, such as small gas stations. The state began implementing the law with a lot of education, followed by technical assistance, then enforcement. Over a 10 to 12-year period, the result was a high level of compliance.
- Auto Repair Sector Campaign – About a decade ago, Ecology targeted 10,000 auto repair facilities in the state that already were regulated. The campaign focused on technical assistance with targeted enforcement. One method used to provide technical assistance was to prepare plain-English descriptions of regulations that are difficult to understand in their original form. By the end of the campaign, the auto service trade association was seeking enforcement against laggards, so that well performing shops would not be at a competitive disadvantage. Ecology had done a good job explaining regulations and providing education.
A few general principles should be kept in mind when working with businesses. They include:
- Regulatory requirements must be clear. Regulations that are difficult to understand are difficult to comply with.
- Measures that are being recommended to businesses must be cost-effective.
- Small businesses need more technical assistance and education.
- Enforcement is more resource-intensive than technical assistance. But enforcement is a necessary component of sector campaigns.
- Without the threat of enforcement, no campaign will succeed. Businesses must know that compliance is expected.
In the long-term, strategies that integrate enforcement, education and technical assistance work best.
Mike Bussell: There is continuing tension between state agencies that emphasize technical assistance and federal emphasis on enforcement. It's important to inform these debates with data instead of relying on anecdotes.
Jeff Hunt: EPA Region 10 has prepared a summary report of persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBT) release data, based on Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reports from 1991 to 1997. While TRI data has shortcomings, notably lack of information about household and small business hazardous waste, it can be a powerful tool for measuring the effectiveness of agency compliance strategies. The report covers 53 substances, including halogenated chemicals, pesticides, non-halogenated phenolics, phthalate esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and various heavy metals.
EPA's goal is to reduce PBT releases into hazardous waste streams 50 percent from 1991 levels by 2005. Based on TRI data, Region 10 appears to be making progress toward that goal. Between 1991 and 1997, PBT production waste increased 18 percent nationally. In Region 10, PBT production waste fell 41 percent in that time period.
State by state, the reductions were 77 percent in Alaska (a pulp mill closure in southeast Alaska was a major factor), 7 percent in Idaho, 19 percent in Oregon and 69 percent in Washington. (The Idaho figure excludes zinc waste from one company because of the firm’s reporting errors. If the zinc waste is included, Idaho’s reduction figure is 1 percent.) Washington’s reduction accounted for more than 75 percent of the total regional reduction.
Across the region, chloroform and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) production waste fell 76 percent and 98 percent, respectively. Mercury releases declined 99 percent. Trichlorobenzene production waste was eliminated.
PBT releases per capita totaled 17.2 pounds nationally in 1997. In the Region 10 states, per-capita releases that year were 2.3 pounds in Washington, 7.7 pounds in Oregon, 10.6 pounds in Idaho and 0.4 pound in Alaska.
PBT releases per unit of economic output totaled 635 pounds per $1 million of gross national product in 1997. In the Region 10 states, the figures were 84 pounds for $1 million of gross state product that year in Washington, 277 pounds in Oregon, 469 pounds in Idaho and 11 pounds in Alaska.
Issue: Program Effectiveness
Cummings said that Ecology's overall approach seems to make sense, but that the department has not measured effectiveness, including compliance rate and the time it takes for businesses to come into compliance. In response, Eaton said sector campaigns included an analysis to characterize compliance before the campaigns and a re-check of visited businesses afterward. The largest data gap overall is an analysis of how an enforcement action at one facility affects compliance statewide.
Issue: Regulatory Policy
McEntee agreed that strong enforcement is necessary, but questioned whether compliance should be the goal. Businesses need carrots to move beyond compliance through innovative technologies. There is nothing in current regulations that rewards businesses for installing new technologies that prevent pollution. Indeed, current regulations hinder innovation, by forcing businesses to go through complex permitting procedures in order to change a process. Instead of requiring businesses to comply with technology-based standards that fail to keep up with technology advances, agencies should offer incentives for businesses to invest continuously in new technologies. In the pulp and paper industry, Simpson Tacoma Kraft's competitors in Europe and Canada enjoy government assistance in testing new technologies that both prevent pollution and improve productivity.
He called for "early action" incentives, such as less paperwork or longer term permits, for companies that take voluntary actions to reduce pollution. Lower regulatory costs will give companies incentives to adopt beyond-compliance measures.
Many pulp and paper mills failed to keep up with technological innovations in the industry. More enforcement and regulatory tools that encourage technological advancement would have helped those mills invest in new technologies and remain competitive.
In response to McEntee's observations, Bussell said he agreed there is room for improvement in regulatory policy, but added that compliance requirements also drive businesses to innovate. Palmer said companies that are ahead of the curve won't stay that way permanently, because regulations tighten over time, thus raising the bar.
Mike Scott from the Navy Intermediate Maintenance Facility said federal funding for innovative technologies is available through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program provides competitive grants to small, high-tech businesses. Solicitations are announced each October. In the announcements, the National Institute of Standards and Technology lists the topics for which proposals are sought. Phase 1 grants of up to $75,000 are available for six-month, technical feasibility studies. Successful Phase 1 participants can compete for two-year Phase 2 grants of up to $300,000 to develop their projects further. (For more information about SBIR, visit http://patapsco.nist.gov/ts_sbir.)
Another commenter said the regulatory framework is inflexible, providing only enforcement or single-media technical assistance. EPA's Project XL, a pilot program to test alternative regulatory approaches toward achieving pollution prevention, was described as an exhausting process.
Eaton said Washington businesses have shown no interest in the state Environmental Excellence program, which authorizes businesses to enter into agreements with regulatory agencies that supersede existing requirements, provided the agreement delivers improved environmental results or equal results at lower cost. In response, McEntee said the environmental community does not think Environmental Excellence will produce beyond-compliance benefits. Consequently, businesses are wary of entering into a program that does not enjoy broad support.
McEntee spoke favorably about a multi-media approach taken in Ecology's industrial section. There, staff is authorized to work with businesses on air, water and waste issues, providing one-stop shopping. He recommended that Ecology do more along that line.
Scott said shifting the goal from compliance to environmental quality improvement could result in measurable differences in, for example, the quality of salmon habitat. Eaton replied that rules accompanying endangered species listings for salmon will make habitat protection and restoration a compliance requirement anyway. The National Marine Fisheries Service has released draft "4-D" rules to prevent illegal "take" of West Coast salmon and steelhead listed as threatened species. Once those rules are finalized, habitat protection will be required of land use and other activities in areas affected by the listings. (To find out more about the 4-D rules, visit http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/1salmon/salmesa/4drules.htm.)
Issue: Simplifying Regulations
Bussell said EPA's regulations can be very difficult to understand. Even agency staff can experience difficulty grasping their meaning. EPA has a mandate to write regulations in plain English. On the other hand, there is a tradeoff, because regulations have to be legally enforceable. Clarifying language cannot come at the expense of enforceability. (To find out more, visit the Plain Language Action Network at http://plainlanguage.gov.)
Jim Nolan: Three of the leading air quality problems in western Washington are photochemical smog, particulates and hazardous air pollutants. Industry is responsible for only a small percentage of these pollutants. The region won't continue making progress on improving air quality if agencies target all their resources on industry and none on the polluting actions of individuals, such as use of automobiles or wood-burning stoves.
There are three types of industries: leaders that are ahead of the curve, laggards, and those in between. Enforcement efforts should be concentrated on laggards, which cannot be allowed to enjoy a competitive advantage through poor environmental performance.
What's often missing in technical assistance is that the businesses agencies work with aren't organized to take optimal advantage of the information they're being given. Environmental management must be integrated into everyday business operations, through the following measures:
- Have a policy
- Make line managers responsible for compliance
- Train employees
- Audit, monitor and track
- Reward positive behavior
- Resolve violations
- Look for ways to improve
Two examples illustrate the disconnect when environmental management is not integrated into core business functions
- Damned If You Do...: About 10 years ago, an Everett company that paints doors was told to start using high-velocity, low-pressure (HVLP) spray guns and low-VOC coatings. The business initially resisted. Then, after gaining experience using the new technologies and seeing their benefits, the business complained that the clean air agency should have required their adoption earlier.
- Training Future Workers on Illegal Technologies: When the clean air agency adopted its HVLP rule, a trade school sought an exemption. Agency officials asked in astonishment why the school wanted to train future painters on spray gun equipment that would no longer be legal to operate.
Well managed companies make line managers responsible for compliance. People make mistakes and mechanical systems fail, but companies should have systems in place to correct mistakes and breakdowns. Companies must continuously question why they do things the way they do and look for improvements. The companies that integrate continuous improvement principles into their businesses are leaders in their industries.
Parting quote: "If the chance of enforcement is the same as the chance of being struck by lightning, then enforcement better feel like being struck by lightning."
Ray Carveth: Dinosaur brains see enforcement and technical assistance as an either-or proposition. If you have only one tool for getting environmental results, then you're a dinosaur. By using both resources appropriately, the King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program is getting more results with less expenditure of resources. The 1970s model of command and control was necessary when rivers were catching on fire. As the scale and nature of pollution problems has changed, the 1970s model is not as effective anymore.
A significant fraction of businesses use hazardous materials. Take the population of your community, multiply that figure by 0.08, then multiply the result by 0.30 and you'll get an estimate of the number of businesses in your community that use hazardous materials, as defined by fire codes.
Agencies working with businesses must understand their audience. Businesses want technical assistance with specific information that helps them improve their companies. They want more incentives and fewer disincentives. With nine years of experience conducting 25,000 inspections, the county has found that 85 percent of the businesses visited by its hazardous waste inspectors implement some recommended changes within 10 days.
Incentives are helpful. King County can offer businesses up to $500 in incentives for adopting recommended changes in hazardous materials management and waste reduction. For small businesses that don't have environmental management staff, $500 is a big deal. (For more information about King County's incentives program, visit http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/lhwmp/voucher.html.)
King County's reliance on technical assistance doesn't mean that enforcement is not used when called for. When the hammer is pulled out, it must be used. A technique that King County has found effective is to bring property managers, insurers or bankers into the picture to apply pressure on recalcitrant shops that are out of compliance. Inspectors talk to property managers, who call in lawyers, who in turn tell the shop to either fix the problem or lose its lease. By bringing in other players who will play hardball for business reasons, the county can get quick results with very little expenditure of resources. Businesses are not opposed to enforcement, they just don't like the way the government usually does it.
Issue: Roles of Enforcement and Technical Assistance
McEntee said making technical assistance user-friendly is helpful. It's important for agencies to understand the wide range of pressures that face small business owners on a daily basis. Adopting an environmental management system along the lines of the ISO 14001 standard helps ingrain an environmental ethic, as long as companies focus on results.
Nolan said that business employees must understand the reasons for changes recommended by technical assistance, or else implementation of the changes will not succeed.
Cummings said environmentalists want to see results, and have criticized what they see as poor enforcement by the Washington Department of Ecology. A report issued by the Puget Soundkeeper Alliance in October 1999 showed that nearly one in five National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees in the Puget Sound region were in chronic violation of their permits, and only 6 percent of the chronic violators had been fined by Ecology. (To find out how to obtain a copy of the report, visit the Puget Soundkeeper Alliance at http://www.halcyon.com/pskeeper/cwavnews.html.)
Yet King County has not been the target of environmentalists' complaints, because its technical assistance efforts seem to get results. Carveth said his program is not based on the 1970s model. To design it, he asked both business and environmental interests for advice on the best way to get positive environmental results.
Nolan commented that measures of success are tied to the 1970s model, encouraging agencies to continue relying on it. Carveth pointed out most of a police officer's time is spent on a small minority of the population that causes trouble. The 1970s compliance model is built on the assumption that every business needs to be hammered. Agencies should be held accountable for the results they get, not the number of enforcement activities they carry out.
Issue: Pollution Sources
Nolan said agencies cannot concentrate all their resources on industry when individuals are responsible for a significant share of pollution. Ten percent of the smog in the Puget Sound region comes from gasoline-powered lawn mowers, twice industry's share.
- Carveth: Agencies must remember why they were established – to protect the environment
- Nolan: We ignore the automobile's impacts at our peril. Even though today’s cars run much cleaner than older vehicles, cars create impacts because of the infrastructure that has been built to serve them. For example, parking lots and streets are the cause of polluted runoff that harms salmon habitat.
- Cummings: Focus on results. Don't get hamstrung on how those results are obtained.
- McEntee: Agencies deserve thanks for letting his business be a part of the environmental solution.
For more information about the interplay of enforcement and P2 technical assistance, see "Moving Forward by Looking Back: The Role of Enforcement in Promoting P2," published in the spring 1999 edition of Pollution Prevention Review.
Top Five IssuesFacilitator:
The Bottom Line
Be watchful about the way businesses are run. If they seem sloppy, that’s a telltale indicator that there may be compliance problems affecting more than one environmental medium. Watch for little things that common sense says other programs would be interested in: Fire departments are concerned about flammable materials. Air agencies are concerned about odors. Wastewater and stormwater agencies are concerned about what goes down drains.
Standard Guidance Files CD-ROM
Dave Waddell: Most businesses just want to know what the right thing to do is. They may have a variety of questions that may or may not relate to an inspector's or technical assistance provider's area of expertise, whether it's air, water, occupational safety, or fire codes.
In order for agency personnel conducting field visits to maintain their credibility, they have to be able to answer their questions. You don't have to know all the details when responding to questions, but you should have enough general knowledge to steer the business owner in the right direction. To be helpful to businesses that don’t compartmentalize their concerns by media, inspectors and TAPs have to know something about issues other agencies are concerned about.
To deal with this concern, the Local Hazardous Waste Management Program has produced a CD-ROM that includes standard, plain-English paragraphs about fire codes, air, stormwater, secondary spill containment, MSDS's, and health and safety that can be dropped into letters sent in response to business inquiries. (To obtain a copy of the CD-ROM, contact Dave Waddell.) As issues evolve, agencies should be thinking about new issues they may have to answer questions about. A good example is salmon habitat.
The workshop was kicked off with a discussion of waste issues, including secondary containment, waste characterization, housekeeping, spill planning, documentation, waste reduction goals, employee training, and self-evaluation. Questions for discussion included sources of information that field staff use and how information is shared.
Regulations Booklet: Kevin Masterson said the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality has a booklet that summarizes regulations for small quantity generators. The booklet is shared with other media staff, but not systematically. They are welcome to attend the hazardous waste staff's trainings.
Self-Evaluation Software: Mike Scott from the Navy said a software program has been developed that takes an ISO 14001 type of approach to environmental management. The software is a kind of checklist that can be used for self-evaluation.
Peer Group: The Navy has a P2 network that posts discussions on its intranet. Another idea is to maintain a list of peer group contacts with telephone numbers. Local health departments, meeting minutes, web sites, and regulatory guidance/interpretation documents are other sources of information.
IRAC: King County's Interagency Regulatory Analysis Committee (IRAC) is a successful tool for helping agencies resolve issues and regulatory conflicts that cut across jurisdictional boundaries. Several years ago, a Washington door manufacturer faced conflicting regulatory requirements: the state Department of Labor and Industries ordered the company to put up a railing next to a high storage area to guard against falling objects. The local fire department ordered the company to remove the railing because it impeded firefighter access. To resolve the conflicts, the company owner made appointments for different agency inspectors to meet at his business at the same time, unbeknownst to the inspectors. After they had arrived at the business, they were asked to sort out their conflicts on the spot. (For more information about IRAC, read an article in the September 1999 edition of FlashPoint at http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/lhwmp/fpsep99.html#irac.)
Waste Directory: King County has a Yellow Book designed to help businesses manage different types of waste. (Find out more by visiting http://www.metrokc.gov/hazwaste/yb.)
Watch for Sloppiness: Mario Miller from the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency said that if a shop is sloppy, it indicates there are systemic problems that likely will affect all environmental media.
Air Issues: Representatives of the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency said the presence of outside odors is a good indicator that the business may have an air quality compliance issue. Another indicator to trigger hazardous waste staff to think about contacting an air agency is a business that uses materials containing VOCs. Air quality field staff also like to see written maintenance manuals and some kind of environmental management plan.
Keep Your Eyes Open: Waddell said it pays to be observant. He recalled visiting a transmission shop and noticing extension cords lying in puddles, a situation definitely of interest to both fire protection and occupational safety agencies.
Waddell listed his Top Five issues that will trigger referrals to another agency:
- Air: Presence of spray coating operations, need for maintenance manuals
- Fire: Large accumulation of flammable liquids. Talk to fire marshals, who really understand fire department cultures.
- Wastewater: Pollutants going down sewer drains. Find out local discharge standards.
- Stormwater: Only rain water can go down storm drains. Ask businesses where drains go. Surprisingly, many small businesses are on septic systems.
Building Effective Partnerships: The Nuts and BoltsSpeakers:
Seattle City Light
Snohomish County Solid Waste
The Bottom Line
- Obtaining top management support, showing measurable progress and distributing workloads equitably are keys to making partnerships work.
- Simple projects and listening to local residents help make community partnerships work.
- Funnel administrative tasks through a non-government organization, be persistent, look for allies, be willing to give your program away.
The Eco-Logical Business Program
Kevin Masterson: The Eco-Logical Business program is a partnership involving eight agencies, three non-government organizations, and two automotive service trade associations. The program covers all environmental media, along with energy and water efficiency. (For details about program goals, implementation and early results, see presentation above.)
The partnership is modeled on the GreenStar and EnviroStar recognition programs. With so many players that have varying missions and different cultures, the partnership faced a series of challenges to overcome.
Challenge: Assembling a team and developing consensus in a timely fashion
Solutions: Use existing structures if possible. Start with simple projects, then move forward to more complex undertakings. For example, in 1992, Portland’s "P2O" team pulled together a simple brochure on waste paint for contractors. (The "P2O" team is overseeing the Eco-Logical Business Program. The team includes representatives from Portland-area cities, counties, Portland Metro, the Unified Sewerage Agency, and Oregon DEQ.
Challenge: Gaining support and funding
Solutions: Obtain top management support early. Show measurable effectiveness in advancing agency goals. The Eco-Logical Business team hit on a number of strategies for implementing these solutions. Leading-edge automotive service companies, those who already "get it," were quickly certified under program criteria. A press conference was held near an agency director’s house, and media publicity was generated, including an article in The Oregonian, a daily newspaper serving the Portland metropolitan area.
Challenge: Equitably distributing the workload
Solutions: An annual work plan with commitments from each partner was prepared. Business organizations and NGO’s were conduits to market the program to the target audience.
Challenge: Each partner had different expectations for the program outcome, complicating measurement.
Solutions: The group reached consensus on standard measures and agreed to obtain as much data as possible on best management practices at each participating shop.
(To find out more about the Eco-Logical Business Program, visit http://www.ecobiz.org.)
The Neighborhood Power Project
Miscellaneous program public outreach materials, including contacts list
Mialee Jose: The mission of the Neighborhood Power Project is to save energy, conserve water, and reduce solid waste; facilitate economic growth and development in targeted Seattle neighborhoods; and to contribute toward Seattle’s efforts in environmental stewardship and sustainability.
The Neighborhood Power Project is a partnership that delivers conservation and neighborhood improvement services to residences and businesses in targeted neighborhoods. The city establishes partnerships with community organizations and schools, and projects are driven by neighborhood needs identified by local residents. Volunteer participation is essential for making the projects work. For example, in the Lake City neighborhood, energy-efficient lighting was installed at 38 businesses, home energy audits were conducted for 102 households, 600 energy-efficient porch lights were distributed, and community litter cleanups were held.
In the Georgetown/Maple Hill neighborhood, the project sponsored a crime prevention fair for businesses. Businesses were informed about security lighting, but also received information about recycling, solid waste reduction, and energy and water efficiency. In Southeast Seattle, the newest project, a "BlockWise" project offered residents free energy-efficient porch lights, efficient showerheads and faucet aerators, and information about disaster preparedness and fire safety. A pledge was developed to help residents make choices to care for the environment and their neighborhood.
- Listen to local residents
- Keep projects simple
- Partners benefit by working together
- Publish a compact brochure
(To find out more about the Neighborhood Power Project, visit http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/light/conserve/neighborhood/power.)
Soils for Salmon
Soils for Salmon newsletter, poster
Sego Jackson: Soils for Salmon is a project highlighting the salmon restoration benefits of improving disturbed soils in urban environments. The Washington Organic Recycling Council was assisted by public agencies, research institutions, businesses, and non-government organizations in creating the project. A conference was held March 31, 1999, at which more than 200 professionals explored the connections among soil health, watershed hydrology and salmon restoration.
The conference resulted in tangible products. Cedar Grove Composting, one of Washington’s largest commercial compost producers, printed information on 550,000 product bags describing how organic soil amendments can help salmon by restoring watershed health. A newsletter summarizing the conference findings and recommendations was published. Participants pulled together informally to develop information resources for key audiences, including contractors, watershed keepers, and the general public. Those resources include seminars, brochures, best management practices for soils, a poster illustrating the benefits of organic soil amendments, a Soils for Salmon curriculum for watershed keepers, recyclers and master gardeners, and inclusion of soil conservation into a stormwater management manual.
- Administrative tasks such as money management are best handled through a non-profit organization rather than through a bureaucracy.
- Be persistent – if you know you’re on to a good idea, keep pushing it.
- Look for allies.
- Divide the work up and get it done.
- Give the program away.
- Don’t feel everyone has to agree with you.
- Be creative with resources. Use on-call contractors.
- Soils for Salmon is not against anything. Soils for Salmon is for preserving native soils and plants, which keep watersheds healthy and streams functioning for salmon.
- Don’t underestimate the potency of NGO’s and trade associations.
Question: How do partnerships work around bureaucratic barriers to inter-agency cooperation?
Answer: Jose said she tries to parcel out discrete tasks to each partner. Evaluation of Neighborhood Power Project activities was shared by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light. Jackson said Soils for Salmon tasks were divided up informally.
A reality is that departments within agencies don’t communicate with each other or work together. Jackson works in Snohomish County’s solid waste department, and Soils for Salmon brought him into contact with planning and surface water departments in the county he had never worked with before.
Funneling administration through a non-profit organizations helps avoid the administrative issues of inter-agency agreements. For example, six western Washington counties participate in the Reusable Building Materials Exchange, but the program itself is housed at Climate Solutions, a Northwest NGO with offices in Olympia. Sally Toteff from Thurston County said agencies need to get away from the mentality that projects always must be led by government.
Priority Sector TargetingSpeakers:
Seattle-King County Public Health
Thurston County Environmental Health
Washington Department of Ecology
The Bottom Line
- EPA uses compliance and pollution release rankings to determine sector priorities.
- Seattle-King County Public Health Department sets sector priorities by going through a series of questions.
- Washington’s PBT strategy will rely on a mix of P2, voluntary incentives, and remediation to eliminate PBT releases into the state’s environment.
- Thurston County sets sector priorities through a combination of hunches, baseline survey data, and priorities of cities within the county.
Dave Tetta: EPA has reorganized its enforcement program to place more emphasis on sectors. Using Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, EPA sets priorities by ranking sectors for their rate of compliance and pollutant releases. A high-priority sector is one with a high likelihood of violations that raise serious enforcement concerns, a high risk of pollution releases, and low frequency of inspections.
Examples of sectors that rank highly in potential for violations and pollution releases include electroplating, petroleum refineries, iron and steel production, and manufacturing of plastics and synthetic resins. In Region 10, mining and agriculture are sectors targeted for compliance efforts. Data sources used for the sector targeting analysis include Dun & Bradstreet, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), and spill reports.
Several years ago, EPA developed the Integrated Data for Enforcement Analysis (IDEA) system for pulling together compliance information from single-media databases and developing reports describing all the permitting, inspection and enforcement activity covering all media.
The Sector Facility Indexing Project (SFIP) is a pilot project to improve and simplify public access to all the environmental information for five profiled industrial sectors: automobile manufacturing, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, iron and steel production, and primary production of aluminum, copper, lead and zinc. Indexed sectors of special interest to the Northwest include petroleum refining, pulp and paper, iron and steel production, and primary production of aluminum.
SFIP provides environmental data about each facility in these sectors, including inspections, compliance history, enforcement actions, chemical releases, and spills. Background information is available also, including location and production capacity, and information about the surrounding population’s demographics. (To find out more about SFIP and query its database, visit http://www.epa.gov/oeca/sfi.)
Sector targeting helps focus resources and encourages out-of-box thinking. Occasionally, data showing low rates of compliance is used for compliance assistance and auditing projects.
As data is used more for everyday decision-making, the importance of updated data rises. Public access keeps the agency on its toes so that data quality is maintained.
Seattle-King County Public Health
Steve Burke: King County uses a set of questions to determine sector priorities. They include:
- Are the businesses small quantity generators?
- Are there political issues or connections that need to be considered?
- Would a sector campaign step on the toes of other jurisdictions?
- Would a lot of preliminary research be necessary or could outreach staff be sent into the field immediately?
Sector targeting can be time-consuming. Different county departments may have differing ideas on priorities, for example. Staff try to work out disagreements at lower levels.
Question: What are King County’s future sector priorities?
Answer: The county is looking at campaigns for painters, lithographic and screen printers, marinas, autobody shops, and fleet vehicle operations. The county is presently working on a project to characterize the metalworking fluids used in metal machine shops, and develop a set of pollution prevention and best management practices recommendations.
A point raised in discussion is that SIC codes are not very descriptive for certain sectors. Metal fabrication, for example, is very diverse in the processes and materials used.
Sally Toteff: Thurston County is a community where groundwater protection is a high priority. The county has undertaken a series of campaigns aimed at sectors with the potential to pollute groundwater aquifers that supply drinking water. In the early and mid-1990s, the county worked with contractors, auto repair, landscapers, and janitorial services. Also in that period, lithographic and screen printers, photo processors, medical offices, schools, gravel mines, and painting contractors were targeted for education, technical assistance, and compliance assistance. In the late 1990s, auto repair, marinas, nurseries, and Christmas tree farms were priorities. In 2000, the county plans to work with landscape contractors.
Selection of sectors is based on hunches, baseline survey data, political concerns, and priorities of cities providing funding to focus on wellhead protection areas. The county’s environmental health staff is small enough that communications with other media programs can easily take place.
Washington Department of Ecology PBT’s Program
Mike Gallagher: The Washington Department of Ecology is developing a strategy to eliminate release of persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs) into the state’s environment. A combination of pollution prevention, voluntary incentives, multi-media projects, and remediation will be necessary to accomplish the goal over the next 20 years.
PBT’s are toxic, long-lasting substances that accumulate at the upper levels of food chains and can damage human and ecosystem health. PBT’s can move easily among air, water and land over long distances.
(To find out more about the state’s PBT strategy, visit http://www.wa.gov/ecology/eils/bcc/bccfaq.html.)
Question: What followup activities do agencies conduct after sector campaigns are concluded?
Jill Trohimovich from the Seattle-King County Public Health Department said some shops are revisited after sector campaigns. For example, the county conducted an auto repair sector campaign several years ago and plans to revisit some of the shops. John Taylor from Oregon DEQ said 10 percent to 15 percent of businesses visited in geographic area campaigns are revisited to measure the extent of behavior changes.
Kevin Masterson from Oregon DEQ said the timing of followup visits is important. Going back several years later will give some indication of the persistence of behavior change. A problem area is employee turnover within agencies, which results in loss of institutional memory.
Toteff said Thurston County provides educational materials with new building permits or business license changes, and stocks fact sheets at county permit centers.
Thursday, December 9 1999
Welcome and IntroductionsThe third day of the roundtable was opened by Carolyn Gangmark from EPA Region 10. Gangmark said there is a confluence of issues involving energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, pollution prevention, and global climate change. Not as many people are concerned about climate issues as there needs to be.
Northwest Council on Climate Change
The Bottom Line
The buildup of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere will cause large-scale changes in weather patterns, with profound consequences for public health, water supply, forest health, fisheries, air quality, and host of other resources. The window of time for halting the rise in greenhouse gas concentrations through energy efficiency and conversion to non-fossil energy sources is only about 40 years.
Contact information and resource sheet
Blair Henry: In the global scientific community, there is little doubt that human activities are altering the world’s climate, but uncertainties about specific impacts on a local level remain. The U.S. is spending $2 billion annually on climate research, and understanding of the phenomenon is moving ahead at a rapid pace.
The physics of climate change are straightforward. Carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" are building up in the atmosphere. Like the glass in a greenhouses, these gases prevent the sun’s heat from escaping back into space. The increase in heat energy in the atmosphere and oceans is altering the chemical and physical processes that drive the world’s climate, leading to increasing incidence of "weird weather." Weather systems skewed by increased heat energy in the atmosphere will result in a variety of impacts around the world: different regions may experience more frequent severe storms, prolonged droughts and heat waves, wetter weather, or colder weather caused by redistribution of heat to other regions.
A major source of greenhouse gases is combustion of fossil fuels – coal, oil and natural gas. Of the three, coal emits the most carbon dioxide, oil is second and natural gas third. Since 1900, fossil fuel combustion has increased 800 percent.
Climate change is a very controversial political issue. However, a number of CEO’s of major corporations, including Ford Motor Co. and BP Amoco, have concluded that the threat of climate change is real. Two others are Boeing and Weyerhaeuser.
The reason for the political controversy surrounding climate change is the economic and consequent political heft of companies that produce fossil fuels or are dependent on fossil fuel-generated electricity for their manufacturing processes. These companies are found in most parts of the U.S., with the exception of the Northwest and New England.
The casualty insurance sector in general is concerned about a changing climate because of the potential danger that more frequent severe storms will result in huge property losses. 1998 losses from extreme weather totaled more than $90 billion, greater than all of the 1980s put together. The Reinsurance Association of America, a trade association of companies that cover insurance companies against catastrophic losses, believes that a changing climate could bankrupt the industry. (To find out about one reinsurance company’s perspectives on climate change, visit Swiss Re at http://www.swissre.com/e/issues/climate.html.)
Since the combustion of fossil fuels began on a wide scale in 1800, the concentration of atmospheric CO2 has risen 30 percent, from 280 parts per million (ppm) to 360 ppm, where it stands today. Average global temperatures have risen 1.5 degrees F in the past 120 years. Average global temperatures are higher than they have been for the past 1,000 years. The 1990s were the hottest decade in the past 600 years. 1998 was the hottest year in the past 1,000 years.
In the long reach of geologic time, atmospheric CO2 levels fluctuate naturally. Research shows that CO2 and global temperatures have gone up and down in lockstep for the past 150,000 years. But the recent increase has taken place on a much faster time scale than increases in pre-industrial times. CO2 levels have increased 30 percent since 1800. That’s as much change in 200 years as normally took place during the past 150,000 years. At present rates of emission, CO2 levels will increase to 560 ppm by 2050, twice the pre-industrial level.
What does that mean for the climate, particularly in the Northwest? University of Washington research findings project average temperature increases of 5.3 degrees F by 2050, with a 70 percent certainty. Adding the 1.5 degree increase recorded since the 19th century will bring the average temperature increase to 6.8 degrees over a two-century period. On a planetary scale, a 6.8-degree increase is monumental. Consider this: If average temperatures were to fall by 6.8 degrees, Seattle would be buried under 3,000 feet of ice.
The effects of average temperature increases on weather patterns and, consequently, on ecological processes are sweeping. Mountain snowpack is the Northwest’s natural water storage system. With more heat energy in the atmosphere, the hydrological cycle will be accelerated, resulting in warmer, wetter winters. Snowpack will be thinner and will melt off sooner, resulting in more winter flooding and reduced river flows in the summer. In turn, hydroelectric generation will be reduced and less water will be available for summer irrigation. With continued warming, Canadian scientists estimate that snowpack in the Cascades will be gone forever in the 2070 to 2080 time period. Hotter summer temperatures will lead to increased incidence of unhealthy "hot smog," which occurs as a result of chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds and extended daytime heat.
The biological impacts of these changes will be enormous. Hotter summer temperatures will stress out the Northwest’s coniferous forests, and could result in their disappearance east of the Cascades. Stressed trees are more susceptible to insect and disease attack. Extensive tree dieoffs would fuel forest fires. With reduced river flows and warmer water temperatures, salmon will be under even more stress than they are today. Invasive weeds and insects may have a field day.
Melting of ice and thermal expansion of the oceans will raise sea levels. Don’t buy shoreline property in low-lying places such as downtown Olympia, Aberdeen or Hoquiam. Rising sea levels will lead to saltwater intrusion farther inland.
Those are the effects of a "2X" world with CO2 levels doubled from pre-industrial levels. With strong action, CO2 levels could be held at that level. Without strong action, CO2 levels could very well hit "3X" or "4X" levels. The consequences of a 4X world are stunning. For example, the current average day/night temperature in Washington, D.C. during the summer is 85 degrees. In a 2X world, that average rises to 95 degrees. In a 4X world, the average shoots up to 110 degrees. Today, there is no human community in the world that lives in such extreme conditions.
Rapid action is necessary to arrest the buildup of CO2 at even the 2X level. There is a 40-year window, during which a 90 percent reduction in fossil fuel consumption is necessary, to stop the buildup at 2X. If we don’t act, the atmosphere will not return to 2X levels for an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 years.
There is little chance of meaningful action at the federal level because of political obstacles. Federal agencies have to be careful about even discussing the issue.
However, actions can be taken at the regional, state and local levels. Municipal governments could join the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives’ Cities for Climate Protection Campaign, which offers grants and technical assistance and training to support programs that cut greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors. (Find out more by visiting http://www.iclei.org/us/US_ccp.html.)
Vehicle purchasers can be smart about their buying decisions. Sixty percent of the CO2 emitted in Washington comes from the transportation sector, whose CO2 emissions are growing three times faster than the state’s population. Furthermore, inefficient sport-utility vehicles (SUV’s) account for more than half of all new vehicle purchases. One tank of gasoline in a SUV can result in the emission of 466 pounds of CO2. A SUV can emit three times its own weight in carbon dioxide every year.
Consider the differences in vehicle fuel efficiency. A SUV gets only 17 miles per gallon. In contrast, a gasoline-electric hybrid can get more than 70 miles per gallon. (You can compare the fuel efficiency of passenger cars by visiting http://www.fueleconomy.gov.)
(To find out more about the work of the Northwest Council on Climate Change, visit http://www.nwclimate.org.)
P2, Energy and Sustainability: The Big PictureSpeakers:
WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program
EPA Energy Star Building/Green Lights Program
Earth Day 2000 Network
206-876-2000 x213, email@example.com
The Bottom Line
- The energy industry is in flux, with revolutionary efficiency and energy production technologies on the horizon.
- Energy Star is an effective voluntary program that is helping building owners and households save money through efficiency upgrades in buildings and by purchasing efficient appliances
- Solar is a practical and cost-effective technology for generating clean electricity.
- Earth Day Network is seeking local governments to participate in the Clean Energy Now campaign for Earth Day 2000.
"Global Warming Is Here: The Scientific Evidence, Climate Solutions special report
"In Hot Water – A Snapshot of the Northwest’s Changing Climate" Climate Solutions special report
"How the Northwest Can Lead a Clean Energy Revolution" Climate Solutions special report
"NW clean energy industry is ready for blastoff" Daily Journal of Commerce article, July 17, 1998
Rhys Roth:Energy is the single largest enterprise in human industry. Revolutionary technologies for generating electricity are on the horizon. The shift to clean, highly efficient and decentralized energy resources could be as dramatic as the information revolution in which mainframe computers gave way to PC’s.
Wind and solar are the fastest growing energy resources in the world. Germany, Denmark, and Spain are world leaders in wind energy use and production of wind energy equipment. Sanyo, Mitsubishi and Sharp are examples of Japanese companies investing in solar energy. BP Amoco and Shell are two oil companies that see a promising future for solar energy and are backing up their expectations with big investments.
In vehicle technology, the world’s largest automakers are racing to bring gasoline-electric hybrids and fuel cell cars to market. The Honda Insight, a gasoline-electric hybrid, is available in U.S. showrooms now. Later in 2000, Toyota will begin marketing the Prius, a gasoline-electric hybrid, in the U.S. DaimlerChrysler is planning to market a fuel cell vehicle by 2004.
Other promising markets for fuel cells are transit buses and decentralized power generation.
The Northwest has been a leader in energy efficiency for the past 20 years, and the industry is mature. Nearly 900 companies accounting for 20,000 jobs are in the business of selling energy efficiency products and services in Washington, Oregon and Idaho.
What can businesses do to help prevent disruptive climate change? The best way is to improve energy efficiency through measures such as lighting upgrades and purchase of efficient vehicles. Energy service companies can help businesses retrofit their lighting and other energy using equipment. In addition to saving money, energy efficiency improves business productivity.
Energy efficiency upgrades implemented with the help of energy service companies can be accomplished at no up-front cost to the customers, because the energy service companies make their money by taking a share of the energy savings. (A directory of energy service companies and other firms in the energy efficiency business is available by visiting the Northwest Energy Efficiency Council, at http://www.neec.net.)
P2 technical assistance providers are in a strategic position to make a contribution by making appropriate referrals to energy and manufacturing assistance providers with energy expertise.
(To find out more about the work of Climate Solutions, visit http://www.climatesolutions.org.)
Maria Tikoff-Vargas: Energy Star is a voluntary partnership program that helps businesses reduce their costs and improve competitive advantage through energy efficiency. Today’s efficiency technologies could reduce energy use by 30 percent and save $200 billion nationwide by 2010. Pollution prevention benefits include reductions in greenhouse gases, and pollutants that cause smog and acid rain.
There is an enormous opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by incorporating efficiency measures into building design. Capital stock that is not yet built will account for 60 percent of the CO2 that the U.S. is expected to be emitting in 2010.
Energy technologies used in buildings often date back to the 1940s. Who today would purchase a car built with 1940s-era technologies?
Energy Star is a market-based partnership program that removes barriers to making good purchasing decisions. About 13 percent of the commercial, industrial and institutional building square footage in the nation is participating in the Energy Star Buildings program. In 1998, efficiency upgrades in participating buildings reduced energy costs by more than $800 million and prevented emission of 2.4 million metric tons of greenhouse gases (expressed as carbon equivalent). Potential savings total $130 billion.
Energy Star has helped consumers save $7 billion through purchases of efficient homes, appliances and equipment. Potential savings total $100 billion. In 1998, use of Energy Star products saved 4 million metric tons of greenhouse gases (carbon equivalent).
In the Northwest, Energy Star savings total $204 million in Washington, $106 million in Oregon and $30 million in Idaho.
Barriers to implementing energy efficiency include the following:
- Energy is thought to be an uncontrollable overhead cost
- Information overload
Lack of awareness is another barrier. For individuals, energy is close to being a non-existent issue when they make appliance purchasing decisions.
Energy Star Buildings has developed a powerful on-line benchmarking tool that will help promote participation in the program. The tool is used for giving office buildings 5,000 square feet or larger an efficiency score ranging from 0 to 100. Buildings that score 75 or higher are eligible for recognition as Energy Stars. The scores are based on actual billing data, normalized for weather and verified by an independent party. The scores permit apples to apples comparisons of buildings.
The advantages: Building owners can see at a glance how much more efficient an equipment upgrade will make their buildings, and can check on how their buildings compare with their competition’s properties. Tenants can compare efficiency and costs. (Find out more about the benchmarking tool by visiting http://www.epa.gov/buildings/label/html/benchmarking.html.)
For consumers, Energy Star labels help them shop for the most efficient appliances. Manufacturers work voluntarily with Energy Star to label products that meet efficiency standards.
One example is Energy Star labels for home electronics. Television sets and video cassette recorders use $1 billion worth of electricity per year when they are turned off, because of standby features that consume power. In 1998, manufacturers began offering Energy Star TV’s and VCR’s that reduce standby power consumption.
Energy Star products are available in 29 product categories in 3,500 stores. Categories include home appliances, lighting, windows and office equipment.
Energy Star programs are available for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, including methane and perfluorocarbons. In 1998, 10.5 million metric tons (carbon equivalent) of non-CO2 greenhouse gases were saved through Energy Star partnerships.
Question: How do energy efficiency measures affect indoor air quality?
Answer: Buildings that score 75 or higher with the Energy Star benchmarking tool do not receive the Energy Star recognition label unless they meet indoor air quality standards. An Energy Star building or product does not equate to a reduction in quality of life or functionality.
Question: Will Energy Star labels be given to passenger cars?
Answer: Energy Star means no sacrifice in quality of life or comfort. The transportation link hasn’t been figured out yet.
(To find out more about Energy Star, visit http://www.energystar.gov. For more information about the work of EPA’s Climate Protection Division, visit http://www.epa.gov/cpd.html.)
Miscellaneous commercial solar marketing materials
Mike Nelson: Nelson’s home solar array produced 3.4 kilowatts of electricity on Dec. 8, 1999 an overcast late autumn day in Seattle. At a cost of 22 cents per kilowatt-hour, the electricity was not cost-effective in conventional terms. But the 3.4 kilowatts were enough to run the home for one day, at a cost of 70 cents a day, which works out to only $21 per month. This illustrates that the most important factor in the energy cost equation is the overall cost, not the price per unit of energy. Solar energy is a clean, inexpensive form of energy when used efficiently.
Solar technology is available and practical today. The only reason it is not in widespread use is that conventional economics discounts the value of the future. Coal is still the cheapest form of energy, but only because the future is discounted. The effects of fossil fuel use are evident worldwide: loss of short-grass prairies in the Plains, a persistent pollution haze the size of the U.S. over the Indian Ocean, the west Antarctic ice sheet in danger of collapse, which would raise sea levels 20 feet worldwide and inundate coastal areas where 70 percent of the world’s population lives.
Energy efficiency alone will not make for a sustainable society. An essential element is the use of renewable energy resources. Ordinary sand is the raw material for clean solar energy. Sand contains silicon, the sixth most abundant element in the universe. A plant in Moses Lake, Wash., extracts silicon from sand. A Siemens facility in Vancouver, Wash., grows crystals from the silicon. The crystals can be used to generate electricity from photovoltaic cells without pollution and without making a sound. The price will continue falling. In 1955, the price of solar photovoltaic electricity was $1,755 per watt. In 1999, the price was $5 per watt. At $2 per watt, solar energy is a better deal than any other energy resource.
Purchased in increments of less than 50 kilowatts, solar is cost-competitive today. No one needs 50 kilowatts to run a household.
Switzerland is a nation that understands the benefits of solar energy. Photovoltaic arrays have been installed beside highways, on garages, and on ski slopes. Solar cells could be integrated into building facades and atop their roofs. Consider the price of building facade materials. Aluminum panels cost $110 per square meter. Stone costs $540 per square meter. A photovoltaic panel made of amorphous silicon costs $180 a square meter. Critics say the payback on a photovoltaic panel would be too long. What is the payback on an aluminum panel that produces no energy?
Adding solar panels to a $200,000 home would raise the home’s cost to $214,000. The difference in the monthly payment would be only $60 per month.
Question: What is the potential for solar in Alaska?
Answer: Alaska could potentially be a large market for solar energy. During the extended days of summer, solar equipment could track the sun all day long.
Challenge to the audience: It’s hard to think of an overcast December day in Seattle as being favorable for solar energy production. How much light is available outside under those conditions? A quick test showed the light level outside at 600 foot-candles, more than 10 times the illumination that might be found in a typical office.
(Find out more about solar energy and other renewable resources by visiting the WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Program at http://www.energy.wsu.edu/renewables.)
Earth Day 2000
Michael Closson: Earth Day 2000 will be a worldwide event with the theme "Clean Energy Now." One goal is to have 500 cities in the U.S. be Earth Day cities. The Earth Day 2000 Network is working with the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), which has a Cities for Climate Protection Campaign. So far, 68 U.S. municipalities have joined the campaign, including Seattle, Olympia and Burien in Washington, and Portland in Oregon.
The first city to join the campaign was Berkeley, Calif., which retrofitted traffic signals from incandescent lamps to energy-stingy light emitting diodes that last 10 times longer. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District is planting trees to reduce summer air conditioning loads and has installed 500 photovoltaic systems on home rooftops.
Earth Day Network is developing a states campaign and is hoping to get all 50 to sign up. States are being encouraged to develop green buildings and to buy alternative fuel vehicles for their fleets.
The point of the whole exercise is to push a clean energy revolution from the bottom up, with citizens and local governments pushing the higher levels of government.
(To find out more about the Earth Day 2000 campaign, visit http://www.earthday.net. Find out about the Earth Day 2000’s cities campaign by visiting http://www.earthday.net/action/communities.stm.)
Question: Has there been outreach to environmental justice organizations?
Answer: Environmental justice organizations concerned about immediate environmental health issues such as toxics have been contacted by the Earth Day 2000 Network. The focus on energy came about after extended discussion, and the decision was made to focus on long-range solutions.
Climate Change Resources
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
University of Washington Climate Impacts Group
EPA Global Warming Site
Energy Information Administration
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network
Union of Concerned Scientists
World Wildlife Fund
Renewable Northwest Project
Climate Change Skeptics
Getting Down to Brass Tacks: Collaboration Opportunities for P2 ProgramsFacilitator:
Seattle City Light
206-684-3782, firstname.lastname@example.org Speakers:
Industrial Technical Assistance Providers(ITAP)
Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NWEEA)
503-827-8416 x233, email@example.com
Portland Public Schools (speaking for Resource Efficiency Program)
503-916-2000 x4279, firstname.lastname@example.org
Seattle Public Utilities Resource Conservation
EPA Region 10
The Bottom Line
Welcome and Introductions
Hurley said the purpose of the afternoon session is to translate the big picture information on climate change into practical change on the ground. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention are two sides of the same coin. Through collaboration, energy efficiency and P2 technical assistance providers can deliver more value to businesses. Assistance providers don’t have to be experts on energy or P2, respectively, to make appropriate referrals to assistance programs that will benefit their clients.
Rob Penney: To provide comprehensive services, assistance providers should keep the following principles in mind for finding good information and building partnerships.
- One good resource leads to another. You just have to know where to start.
- Consider resource quality. Just because a resource is on line doesn’t mean it’s good. Be sure sources are reliable, fast, comprehensive and unbiased.
- Accumulate information leads, not piles of paper.
- Organize your information.
- A good potential partner is prepared. Before a meeting or event, scope out the background on people, organizations, and technologies.
- Be a power web surfer. Useful web sites include:
Four energy programs are worth considering as information resources and/or partners by P2 assistance providers. They include:
- Energy Ideas Clearinghouse – Provides technical assistance, toll-free hotline, library research, software and publications for improving commercial and industrial energy efficiency. (Visit the clearinghouse at http://www.energy.wsu.edu/cx.)
- ITAP – A partnership of P2 and energy assistance providers. One goal is to help assistance programs provide comprehensive services. For example, an energy assistance provider visiting a plant to talk about a motors upgrade should be able to make appropriate referrals if a potential hazardous waste concern is observed. Conversely, a P2 assistance provider should be prepared to refer businesses to an energy expert to provide assistance with lighting or motors.
- WSU Energy Program – The program provides a comprehensive array of information services related to commercial and industrial energy efficiency, telecommuting, renewable energy resources, building standards, and other areas. (Visit the program at http://www.energy.wsu.edu.)
- U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies – Provides a wide array of technical and financial assistance services, and sponsors research and development projects on energy efficient technologies. Technical assistance is available for motors, steam, compressed air, and combined heat/power systems. (Visit the Office of Industrial Technologies at http://www.oit.doe.gov.)
Other useful web sites:
- Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center – http://www.pprc.org
- Con.WEB, Northwest energy news site – http://www.newsdata.com/enernet/conweb
- National Inventory of Manufacturing Assistance Programs http://www.oit.doe.gov/nimap
- MotorMaster, motor efficiency software – http://mm3.energy.wsu.edu/mmplus
- Lighting Design Lab, lighting efficiency assistance – http://www.northwestlighting.com
- Trade Associations database – http://www.asaenet.org/find
Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NWEEA)
NWEEA information packet
Blair Collins: The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance is a utility-funded, non-profit organization working to clear away market barriers to the use of energy-efficient products and practices.
The alliance has funded 32 residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural projects to provide education, catalyze technology transfer, demonstrate technologies, and develop training programs. Projects of interest to commercial and industrial sectors include the following:
- Drive Power Initiative – Electric motors account for 60 percent of the energy used by industrial sectors. Goal: Improve management, maintenance and reconditioning of motors. (http://www.nwalliance.org/projects/projectoverview.asp?PID=20)
- Fan Speed Reduction for Pneumatic Conveyance Systems – Goal: Build awareness of energy savings that can be achieved by reducing fan speeds in pneumatic conveyance systems used in the secondary wood products industry.
- Speed Control for Fan, Pump and Blower Applications – Goal: Demonstrate a technology for controlling motor speeds in industrial and large commercial applications.
- Building Operator Certification – Provides specialized training for building operators and plant managers. (http://www.nwalliance.org/projects/projectoverview.asp?PID=41)
- Bio-Wise Wastewater Treatment – Goal: Demonstration of nutrient-assisted digestion technology for sewage treatment that could reduce energy used for aeration.
- Sav-Air Master Plan – Leakage is a common source of waste in compressed air systems. Goal: Develop and launch self-sustaining businesses specializing in management of compressed air systems.
- Compressed Air Challenge – Develop a training and certification program for plant personnel in industrial and large commercial facilities.
- Microelectronics Industry Efficiency Initiative – Goal: Improve energy efficiency in plants that produce silicon crystals, semiconductors, printed circuit boards and other components of information technology systems. The Northwest manufactures half the semiconductor-grade silicon wafers in the U.S. In addition to reducing energy costs, efficiency technologies can increase productivity and improve product quality. (http://www.nwalliance.org/projects/projectoverview.asp?PID=19)
(To find out more about the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance’s work, visit http://www.nwalliance.org.)
Program flyers, "Environmental Efficiency," Puget Sound Business Journal article, Sept. 10-16, 1999
Jack Brautigam: ClimateWise is a voluntary partnership program that helps businesses cut costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent pollution. More than 500 companies have become partners nationwide. The program is administered by state and local governments. In the Northwest, Seattle City Light, the city of Portland, and the Oregon Office of Energy are ClimateWise allies that administer the program.
ClimateWise takes a comprehensive approach. Participating businesses are assisted with improving energy and water efficiency, waste reduction, and commuter trip reduction. Companies are asked to sign a participation agreement, identify project opportunities, then implement, track and report on progress.
Companies can commit to projects that best suit their needs. Some may focus on upgrading their lighting. Others may work on improving efficiency of motors and water use. Starbucks, for example, committed to 56 projects.
The scope of projects doesn’t have to be restricted to installing better technology. Product design and management policies can be part of the package. Once the company has decided on projects, the local ClimateWise office pulls together resources to help the company implement them.
Eight Puget Sound area ClimateWise partners were recruited in 1999:
- Lafarge (cement manufacturing)
- Starbucks (gourmet coffee)
- Rudd Company (coatings manufacturing)
- Hytek Finishes (metal finishing)
- Canyon Creek Cabinet Co. (wood cabinet manufacturing)
- Subase Bangor (naval submarine maintenance)
- Trace Engineering (manufacturer of solar power inverters)
- Tyee Aircraft (aerospace subcontracting).
Program goals for 2000 are to form a peer group network of participants, broaden regional participation, and emphasize transportation projects.
(To find out more about ClimateWise, visit Seattle City Light at http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/light/conserve/business/cv5_cw.htm or the ClimateWise national site at http://www.epa.gov/climatewise.)
Question: With so many programs available, is ClimateWise easier or harder to sell?
Answer: As the climate issue becomes better known, companies that participate will be able to see that voluntary greenhouse gas reductions will put them in a favorable position if emissions reductions are ever required. (To find out about the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Voluntary Reporting program, visit http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/frntvrgg.html.)
Resource Efficiency Program
Nancy Bond: Resource Efficiency was a pilot project to build community-based programs that help participating small businesses improve energy and water efficiency, and reduce waste. The pilot ran from 1996 to 1998.
The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality worked with three partner communities: Corvallis, Milwaukie and Cannon Beach. In each community, Oregon DEQ contracted with a primary sponsor to employ a resource efficiency coordinator who marketed the program, conducted on-site assessments of participants, provided resource efficiency recommendations, and tracked implementation. In each community, the local chamber of commerce was either a primary sponsor or an additional sponsor. Business participants were recruited through marketing activities, such as public presentations and articles. No cold calls were made.
Once businesses agreed to participate, resource efficiency coordinators did walk-throughs, and obtained utility billing information (with business permission) to analyze energy and water usage, and solid waste generation. Then, businesses were given reports with recommendations for improving efficiency and reducing waste through technology and behavior change. Businesses were free to implement whatever they wanted and the resource coordinators worked with them to track the results of efficiency projects.
Out of 77 participants, 71 implemented at least some recommendations. In total, participants reduced solid waste by 57,000 pounds, conserved 360,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity, decreased natural gas usage by 1.9 million cubic feet, and reduced water consumption by 5.5 million gallons. Cost savings totaled $82,000 per year, an average of $42 per employee.
- Working with chambers of commerce helped validate the program for businesses and enhanced program marketing.
- Continuing communications motivated sponsors to keep promoting the program.
- Measurement is vital, but don’t get bogged down in measuring minutiae. Measure things that will get participants’ attention.
- Don’t pressure businesses that don’t want to participate. Accept their decision and move on.
- Two years was too short to run a pilot project. It took a year just to get the program up and running. Communities interested in running similar programs should run them for at least three years.
(To find out more about the Resource Efficiency Program, read the final report at http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/solwaste/repp/resefpp.html. Visit the Oregon Commercial Waste Reduction Clearinghouse at http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/cwrc.html.)
Sustainable Building 1
List of sustainable design and construction assistance and incentives; Sustainable building facts and figure sheet; Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system report
Lucia Athens: There are numerous connections between sustainable building and pollution prevention. Sustainable building refers to the integration of materials and practices to restore environmental quality, promote economic vitality, and incorporate social benefits. Well-known practices such as energy efficiency, construction site recycling and water efficiency are integrated into a single discipline that considers the environmental and social effects of the building as a whole.
Buildings account for an enormous share of economic activity and resource consumption. More than 50 percent of the nation’s wealth is tied up in buildings. They account for 40 percent of total energy use, 25 percent of timber harvest, 50 percent of ozone-depleting substance use, 30 percent of raw materials consumption, 35 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, and 40 percent of solid waste going to landfills.
In a Northwest context, sustainable building is an important element of salmon recovery. On a local level, salmon habitat is affected by stormwater runoff, water use, and water pollution caused by development. On a broader scale, climate change caused by fossil fuel energy consumption is altering hydrological cycles and water temperature patterns, which also affect the health of the region’s salmon runs.
Salmon-friendly building practices include the following:
- Preserving native vegetation and clustering buildings in order to conserve and cleanse water, and minimize stormwater runoff.
- Minimizing impervious coverage, which upsets watershed hydrology by intensifying the speed, quantity and erosive power of storm runoff, which in turn alters the structure, functioning, chemical composition, and water temperature of streams.
- Install water-efficient appliances, conserving water that can be left in aquifers and the fish-bearing streams they’re connected to.
- Use low-toxicity materials to prevent water pollution.
- Plant native landscaping, which requires little or no fertilizers or pesticides that pollute water.
When planning a building project, it’s important to consider life cycle capital and operating costs, including the labor costs of people who will be living or working in the building. Only 2 percent of a building’s total life-cycle costs are the up-front costs. Building maintenance costs account for 6 percent. The remaining 92 percent are the labor costs of people using the building.
The comfort and health of building occupants can be improved by illuminating the building with daylight and by preventing poor indoor air quality from causing "sick building syndrome." A good indoor environment can improve building productivity by up to 16 percent. A recent study, using multiple linear regression analysis, documented the positive impact of daylighting on school test scores in three school districts, one of which was Seattle, and in increasing sales in a retail chain (For details about the study’s results, visit the Heschong Mahone Group, an architectural consulting firm, at http://www.h-m-g.com (click on project icon). The study was conducted by Heschong Mahone on behalf of Pacific Gas & Electric.)
Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light are implementing a sustainable building strategic plan. The intent of the plan is to transform the building market and make sustainable practices the norm. (Read the plan at http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/util/RESCONS/susbuild/plan.htm.)
The city itself will be undertaking a number of large-scale building projects, including a new city hall, justice center, main library, library branches and an aquarium. By incorporating sustainable features into these projects, the city will demonstrate commitment to stewardship, save taxpayer dollars, improve workplace health, conserve resources, and set a good example.
The city will use the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system to assess the environmental performance of its building projects. LEED takes into account indoor air quality, energy efficiency, water efficiency, construction site management, and materials conservation. (To find out more about the LEED rating system, visit the U.S. Green Building Council at http://www.usgbc.org.)
Other green building activities are being undertaken by the private sector. For example, the master builders association of King and Snohomish counties is developing a green building guide. Build a Better Kitsap (http://www.kitsaphba.com) and Build a Better Clark are networks of architects, contractors and real estate agents promoting sustainable building practices and construction of homes that have reduced energy costs, improved comfort, and enhanced indoor air quality.
In the Seattle Public Schools, sustainable practices will be used in the remodeling of Greenwood Elementary School.
Sustainable Building 2
Judith Leckrone: In 1999, EPA Region 10 renovated the 2,085-square-foot executive office suite housing the regional administrator, the deputy administrator, other senior program managers, and support staff. Before renovation, the suite was a somewhat dysfunctional place to work, with oversized executive offices that were frequently unused because of executive travel schedules, outdated dark paneling, no daylight, and inefficient storage.
The goals of the renovation were to create an attractive office suite that meets executive standards and is resource-efficient, flexible, efficient and configured to encourage staff interaction. The resource goals included minimizing demolition waste, using sustainable materials, improving energy efficiency and protecting indoor air quality. Another goal was to carry out a demonstration project that would have educational value for the region.
The administrator’s and deputy administrator’s offices were shrunk from 400 to 225 square feet, but the smaller offices are more functional. In anticipation that future administrators may want different office configurations, modular, easily moved walls were installed to separate their offices from the rest of the suite. For support staff, space is configured more equitably, better storage is available, and daylighting creates a more pleasing indoor environment.
Ninety-five percent of construction waste was diverted from the landfill through reuse or recycling. Drywall, metal framing, wiring, and ceiling tiles were recycled. Door frames, doors and glass were reused.
The renovated suite incorporates daylight. Occupancy sensors and compact fluorescent lamps improved lighting efficiency. For indoor air quality, low or no-VOC paints, drywall mud and adhesives were used. Plastic sheeting and ventilation were used to prevent workers elsewhere on the floor from being disturbed by odors during the renovation.
Sustainably produced materials or recycled materials were used for furniture and countertops. Textiles used for furniture were produced from free-range sheep and fabricated without toxic chemicals. Furniture wood came from a working forest certified for its use of sustainable forestry practices. Countertops were made from recycled soda bottles.
EPA was assisted with the project by the Business and Industry Recycling Venture (BIRV), a project of the Greater Seattle Chamber of Commerce; the Lighting Design Lab; Paladino Consulting, a sustainable building consulting firm; and the Certified Forest Products Council, a non-profit organization that promotes the use of wood products from independently certified forests.
- BIRV – http://www.seattlechamber.com/birv
- Lighting Design Lab – http://www.northwestlighting.com
- Paladino Consulting – http://www.palcon.com
- Certified Forest Products Council – http://www.certifiedwood.org
Question: How did the project’s cost compare with conventional construction?
Answer: The cost was higher, by about $9 per square foot. EPA believed that the educational value of the project justified the higher cost. The information gained in the executive suite remodeling project is being used in a subsequent remodeling elsewhere in the building that EPA Region 10 uses.
Question: Did the renovation result in improved office productivity?
Answer: At first, the support staff resisted the changes, then came around. The administrator and deputy administrator like their new, smaller offices, because they’re simpler and more elegant.
Hurley said Seattle City Light obtained a grant to examine the productivity impacts of sustainable building. The information may be available by the fall of 2000.
Green Building Resources
See compendium of resources in the Summer 1999 edition of Pollution Prevention Northwest, http://www.pprc.org/pprc/pubs/newslets/news0799.html#resources
LIST OF ATTENDEES
|Lucia Athens||Seattle Public Utilitiesemail@example.com|
|Mary Bell Austin||EPA Region firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Cynthia Balogh||King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Programemail@example.com|
|Phil Bandy||ID Division of Environmental Qualityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Bruce Barbour||WA Dept. of Ecologyemail@example.com|
|Tim Bernthal||Bernthal Environmentalfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Michele Bluemer||WA Dept. of Ecologyemail@example.com|
|Nancy Bond||Portland Public Schoolsfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Jack Brautigam||Seattle City Lightemail@example.com|
|Steve Burke||Seattle-King County Public Health Dept.||firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Mike Bussell||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Rosemary Busterna||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Ray Carveth||King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Programemail@example.com|
|Heather Cataldo||Idaho GemStarsfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Alice Chapman||King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Programemail@example.com|
|Michael Closson||Earth Day Network, Earth Day firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Blair Collins||Northwest Energy Efficiency Allianceemail@example.com|
|Richard Comfort||U.S. Navy, Bangor|
|B.J. Cummings||Puget Soundkeeper Alliancefirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Renee Dagseth||EPA Region 10||206-553-1889|
|Dave Davies||WA Dept. of Ecologyemail@example.com|
|Dan Dell'Agnese||City of Seattle Transportationfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Kinley Deller||King County Solid Waste Divisionemail@example.com|
|Ed DeNoyelles||US Navy Sub Base Bangorfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Celeste Duncan||Seattle Public Utilitiesemail@example.com|
|Tom Eaton||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Sue Ennes||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Curtis Framel||U.S. Dept of Energy, Seattlefirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Michelle Gaither||Clean Washington Center/PPRCemail@example.com|
|Mike Gallagher||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Carolyn Gangmark||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Bill Glasser||EPA Region 10||206-553-7215|
|Tod Gold||EPA Region 10||206-553-2569|
|Diana Grant||Lighting Design Labfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|John Grobler||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Lynn Helbrecht||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Kelly Hendryx||Portland Bureau of Environmental Servicesemail@example.com|
|Blair Henry||Northwest Council on Climate Changefirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rick Hess||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyemail@example.com|
|Jeff Hunt||EPA Region firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Peter Hurley||Seattle City Lightemail@example.com|
|Sego Jackson||Snohomish County Solid Wastefirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Penny Jones||Puget Sound Naval Shipyard|
|Mialee Jose'||Seattle City Lightemail@example.com|
|Judy Kennedy||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Jin Kim||Northwest Dry Cleaners Associationemail@example.com|
|David Kunz||OR Dept. of Environmental Qualityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Tim Lanctot||Seattle Public Utilities||206-684-7489|
|Judith Leckrone||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Barbara Lither||EPA Region firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Kevin Masterson||OR Dept. of Environmental Qualityemail@example.com|
|Susan McDonald||King County Local Hazardous. Waste Management Programfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dave McEntee||Simpson Tacoma Kraft Companyemail@example.com|
|Mario Miller||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Barbara Minton||OR Dept. of Environmental Qualityemail@example.com|
|Dave Misko||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Ryan Misley||Seattle Public Utilities||206-684-7489|
|Peggy Morgan||Washington Department of Ecologyemail@example.com|
|Mike Nelson||WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Programfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Jim Nolan||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyemail@example.com|
|Alice North||WA Dept. of Ecologyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Lane Nothman||Ross & Associatesemail@example.com|
|Margaret Nover||Portland Bureau of Environmental Servicesfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|John Palmer||EPA Region email@example.com|
|Mark P. Patterson||U.S. Navy Commander Navy Region NWfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rob Penney||WSU Cooperative Extension Energy Programemail@example.com|
|Charley Rains||ID Division of Environmental Qualityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rob Reuter||WA Dept. of Ecologyemail@example.com|
|David Roberson||SCS Engineersfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Anne Robinson||EPA Region 10||206-553-6219|
|Jon Rogalsky||Naval Facility|
|Rhys Roth||Climate Solutionsemail@example.com|
|Mike Schultz||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Alexandra Scott||King County Solid Waste Divisionemail@example.com|
|J. Michael Scott||Navy Intermediate Maintenance Facilityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Mike Shepherd||Navy Intermediate Maintenance Facilityemail@example.com|
|Neal Shulman||Puget Sound Clean Air Agencyfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Heidi Siegelbaum||O'Neill & Siegelbaumemail@example.com|
|Bill Smyth||AK Dept. of Environmental Conservationfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Pat Springer||EPA Region 10||206-553-2858|
|Jim Talbot||Seattle Public Utilitiesemail@example.com|
|John Taylor||OR Dept. of Environmental Qualityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Freda Tepfer||Snohomish County Solid Wasteemail@example.com|
|Dave Tetta||EPA Region firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Brenda Thomas||Seattle Public Utilitiesemail@example.com|
|Maria Tikoff-Vargas||EPA Headquartersfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Laurel Tomchick||King County Local Hazardous. Waste Management Programemail@example.com|
|Sally Toteff||Thurston County Environmental Healthfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Jill Trohimovich||Seattle-King County Public Health Dept.||email@example.com|
|Rick Volpel||OR Dept. of Environmental Qualityfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Dave Waddell||King County Local Hazardous. Waste Management Programemail@example.com|
|Rusty Walters||Seattle Public Utilities||206-684-7489|
|Jim Washington||U.S. Air Force Regional Env'l Officer|
|Lisa Westgard||Seattle Public Utilitiesfirstname.lastname@example.org|
© 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center
phone: 206-352-2050, e-mail: email@example.com, web: www.pprc.org
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