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Semiconductor Manufacturing: Complete List of Reference Documents
Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Operations
Reasons to Change
P2 Opportunities
Where To Go for P2 Help
Acknowledgements
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- Article/report -    Top of Page

450mm: What Will It Cost To Get There?
Abstract: Issues for the industry to convert from the current 300mm wafer to a future 450mm wafer, slated for 2012. Historically, changing from one wafer size to the next has been very expensive and results in inefficiencies and more resource requirements.
Source: Future Fab International (Vol 20)
URL: http://www.future-fab.com/documents.asp?grID=208&d_ID=3718

Breakthrough Design Team - With a Little Help from RMI, Texas Instruments Breaks New Ground [PDF]
Abstract: Steps Texas Instruments has taken to design energy and water efficiency into a new semiconductor manufacturing facility in Richardson, Texas. By Page, C.
Source: Rocky Mountain Institute
URL: http://www.graupel.com/pdfs/nl05sp.pdf

Breakthrough Design Team - With a Little Help from RMI, Texas Instruments Breaks New Ground [PDF]
Abstract: Steps Texas Instruments has taken to design energy and water efficiency into a new semiconductor manufacturing facility in Richardson, Texas. By Page, C.
Source: Rocky Mountain Institute
URL: http://www.graupel.com/pdfs/nl05sp.pdf

California Semiconductor Industry - Hazardous Waste Source Reduction Assessment Report [PDF]
Abstract: A legislative program in California requires an environmental review of various industries. This review covered semiconductor facilities and discusses many source reduction activities.
Source: California Department of Toxics Substance Control
URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/Semiconduc
torReport-2.pdf

California Semiconductor Industry - Hazardous Waste Source Reduction Assessment Report [PDF]
Abstract: A legislative program in California requires an environmental review of various industries. This review covered semiconductor facilities and discusses many source reduction activities.
Source: California Department of Toxics Substance Control
URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/Semiconduc
torReport-2.pdf

Comparative Analysis of the Manufacturing and Consumer Use Phases of Two Generations of Semiconductors
Abstract: (Abstract Only - Unless Subscriber or Member of IEEE) Examines manufacture and use stages and how they can exert the most direct and immediate influence on environmental performance through design for the environment, operational and management initiative
Source: IEEE International Symposium 2004
URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?tp=&arnumber=
1299695&isnumber=28876

Draft Strategy for National Clean Water Industrial Regulations
Abstract: EPA's Draft Strategy for National Clean Water Industrial Regulations. Includes info on regulations and effluents associated with semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: US Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://www.epa.gov/EPA-WATER/2002/November/Day-29/w30262.htm

Efficient Water Use for Texas: Policies, Tools, and Management Strategies
Abstract: Disccusses why and how semiconductor fabrication plants are in an ideal position to enact sequential water reuse. Cites successes. (By Gerston, MacLeod, & Jones).
Source: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at Texas A&M University.
URL: http://twri.tamu.edu/reports/2002/tr200/tr200.pdf

Enabling Energy Efficiency in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract: Article discusses activities undertaken by Texas Instruments to continue reducing the amount of energy usage in its facilities.
Source: ElectroIQ
URL: http://www.electroiq.com/articles/sst/print/volume-53/issue-
4/features/energy-efficiency/Enabling-energy-efficiency-
in-semiconductor-manufacturing.html

Environment, Safety and Health
Abstract: Discussion of regulations, practices, and operations affecting worker health and safety, and environmental health in the semiconductor industry.
Source: Semiconductor Industry Association
URL: http://www.semiconductors.org/index.php?submenu=EnvironmentD
ocs&src=directory&view=DocumentSIA&srctype=environment

Environment, Safety and Health (ESH) Metrics for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
Abstract: ESH metrics for semiconductor manufacturing equipment, developed by a SEMATECH workgroup, to provide a uniform method of evaluating ESH performance within semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: International SEMATECH. Technology Transfer 02034261A-TR
URL: http://www.sematech.org/docubase/document/4261atr.pdf

Export Market for Semiconductor Industry
Abstract: State of the global semiconductor industry and projected growth.
Source: Semiconductor Industry Association
URL: http://www.semiconductors.org/news/2011/06/21/news-2011/amer
ica-s-1-export-industry-projects-growth-in-global-sales-
through-2013/

Guidelines for Environmental Characterization of Semiconductor Equipment [PDF]
Abstract: Gives information on environmental performance and issues of equipment and tools used in semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: International SEMATECH. Technology Transfer #01104197A-XFR.
URL: http://www.climatevision.gov/sectors/semiconductors/pdfs/sem
atech_guidelines.pdf

High Tech Dependent on Plenty of Clean Water-Even so, Semiconductor Firms Are Finding Ways To Conserve
Abstract: Discusses how water is used, and how much water is used in chip manufacturing. along with some actual conservation measures. By Charles Boisseau.
Source: Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA)
URL: http://www.lcra.org/featurestory/2005/hightechwater.html

IBM Achieves First Full Phase-Out of Toxic Compounds
Abstract: IBM has become the first in its industry to eliminate the use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) compounds from its chip manufacturing processes.
Source: Greenbiz.com
URL: http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2010/03/02/ibm-achieves-industr
y-first-phase-out-toxic-compounds

IBM to Recycle Chips for Solar Panels
Abstract: IBM has developed a process to recycle discarded computer-chip wafers into solar panels
Source: Bloomberg News, Reuters, Associated Press
URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/technology/30iht-ibm.4.811
8325.html

Inside the Intel Manufacturing Process: How Chips Are Made
Abstract: Step-by-step processes in making a chip at Intel.
Source: Intel Corporation
URL: http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/chipmaking%5Cindex.htm

Inside the Intel Manufacturing Process: How Chips Are Made
Abstract: Step-by-step processes in making a chip at Intel.
Source: Intel Corporation
URL: http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/chipmaking%5Cindex.htm

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) - 2005 Report [PDF]
Abstract: Report addresses advancements in the performance of integrated circuits. This assessment, called roadmapping, is a cooperative effort of the global industry manufacturers and suppliers, government organizations, consortia, and universities.
Source: SEMATECH
URL: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2005ITRS/ExecSum2005.pdf

ISMI Study Finds Significant Cost Savings Potential in Fab Energy Reduction
Abstract: Study results showing great Potential cost and energy savings via modest upgrades of equipment at fabs.
Source: SEMATECH News.
URL: http://www.sematech.org/corporate/news/releases/20051222a.ht
m

ISMI Study Finds Significant Cost Savings Potential in Fab Energy Reduction
Abstract: Study results showing great Potential cost and energy savings via modest upgrades of equipment at fabs.
Source: SEMATECH News.
URL: http://www.sematech.org/corporate/news/releases/20051222a.ht
m

Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) White Paper [PDF]
Abstract: Discusses the challenges and utility of applying LCA in semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: International SEMATECH
URL: http://www.sematech.org/docubase/document/4238atr.pdf

Measuring and Managing Energy Use in Cleanrooms [PDF]
Abstract: Comprehensive set of design guidelines for improving energy efficiency at fabs, in tools and equipment, and overall facility design. Mills, et al.
Source: HPAC Engineering
URL: http://hightech.lbl.gov/Documents/CLEANROOMS/HPAC_CR_BestPra
c.pdf

Pure Water, Semiconductors and the Recession
Abstract: Cost pressures brought on by the recession are affecting semiconductor manufacturers and water treatment equipment manufacturers.
Source: Global Water Intelligence
URL: http://www.globalwaterintel.com/archive/10/10/market-insight
/pure-water-semiconductors-and-the-recession.html

Recycle Spent Rinse Waters with Electrodeionization (EDI) [PDF]
Abstract: Performance of a small separate-bed EDI cell fed by representative spent rinse waters. EDI is growing in importance as an alternative, primary ion-exchange process useful for recycling spent rinse waters. By Donovan & Morrison.
Source: Sandia National Laboratories
URL: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/9717-5VEHIq/
webviewable/9717.pdf

Reducing PFC Gas Emissions from CVD Chamber Cleaning
Abstract: Demonstration of three strategies to reduce PFC usage in cleaning chambers by optimization of use, substitution of NFc, and remote NF3 cleaning.
Source: Air Products and Chemicals Inc., (in Solid State Technology Magazine)
URL: http://www.electroiq.com/articles/sst/print/volume-43/issue-
12/features/deposition/reducing-pfc-gas-emissions-from-c
vd-chamber-cleaning.html

Reducing Water Consumption in Semiconductor Fabs
Abstract: Article based on a paper presented in 2002 showing numerous implementations at Fairchild Semiconductor to reduce ultrapure water or deionized water use. By Klusewitz & McVeigh.
Source: MicroMagazine.com / 13th annual IEEE/SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference
URL: http://micromagazine.fabtech.org/archive/02/10/klusewitz.htm
l

Reducing Water Consumption in Semiconductor Fabs
Abstract: Article based on a paper presented in 2002 showing numerous implementations at Fairchild Semiconductor to reduce ultrapure water or deionized water use. By Klusewitz & McVeigh.
Source: MicroMagazine.com / 13th annual IEEE/SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference
URL: http://micromagazine.fabtech.org/archive/02/10/klusewitz.htm
l

Reducing Water Usage in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract: Semiconductor manufacturers in many locations are being denied requests for additional water to support plans for expanding production. Discusses four approaches to reducing water use. (By Donovan, R)
Source: CleanRooms
URL: http://www.electroiq.com/articles/cr/print/volume-16/issue-6
/features/reducing-water-usage-in-semiconductor-manufact
uring.html

Reduction of Perfluorocompound (PFC) Emissions: 2005 State-of-the-Technology Report [PDF]
Abstract: EPA's report on the semiconductor industry's progress in reducing perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions, which are greenhouse gases.
Source: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
URL: http://www.epa.gov/highgwp/semiconductor-pfc/documents/final
_tt_report.pdf

SEMATECH Position Statement Regarding The Business Case for the Continued Need of PFOS [PDF]
Abstract: Granting the semiconductor industry an exemption from the restrictions on the use of PFOS, a critical substance in semiconductor manufacturing, is based on the industry's ability to tightly control and limit total use of the substances. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is attempting to reduce PFOS by developing alternatives.
Source: SEMATECK
URL: http://www.pops.int/documents/meetings/poprc/submissions/Com
ments_2006/sia/PFOS%20Business-Technology%20Issue%20fina
l%2011-24-04.PDF

Significant Cost Savings in Energy Reduction
Abstract: Summarizes a 2005 International Sematech Manufacturing Initiative (ISMI) which found that the global semiconductor industry could save nearly $500M per year in energy costs by making modest improvements to its tools and facility support systems.
Source: SEMATECH
URL: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-142208414.html

Sustainable Growth Through Emphasis on ESH Improvements
Abstract: Makes the case for sustainable production in semiconductor manufacturing industry, especially in energy and water conservation, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. By English, L., Mallela, R. Miller, C. and Worth, W.
Source: Future Fab International. Volume 12
URL: http://www.future-fab.com/documents.asp?d_ID=931

The 1.7 Kilogram Microchip: Energy and Material Use in the Production of Semiconductor Devices [PDF]
Abstract: By Williams, E., et al. Describes the amount of inputs required to produce a single chip, which amounts to about 630 times the weight of the chip itself.
Source: Environmental Science and Technology
URL: http://www.it-environment.org/publications/1.7%20kg%20microc
hip.pdf

U.S. EPA Recognizes NEC Electronics America for Eliminating Toxic Chemicals
Abstract: NEC Electronics America committed to eliminating three solvents from a processing step. Since then, they have eliminated 8,070 pounds of phenol; 19,645 pounds of dichlorobenzene, and 7,366 pounds of trimethyl benzenes, and has not used any of these chemicals since September 2008
Source: U.S. EPA
URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/7AD89BCAC4F5FBD28
52575BE006B999A

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reports-INVENTORY OF U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS: 1990-2006
Abstract: Greenhouse gas emissions by various industries, including semiconductor (and related device) manufacturing.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryrep
ort.html

Ultrapure Water Production
Abstract: Description of ultrapure water generation processes. By DeGenova, J.
Source: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
URL: http://www.erc.arizona.edu/Education/MME%20Course%20Material
s/MME%20Modules/DI%20Recycle%20Module/UPW%20Production%2
0Process.doc

Ultrapure Water Production
Abstract: Description of ultrapure water generation processes. By DeGenova, J.
Source: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
URL: http://www.erc.arizona.edu/Education/MME%20Course%20Material
s/MME%20Modules/DI%20Recycle%20Module/UPW%20Production%2
0Process.doc

Ultrapure Water: Rewards of Recycling
Abstract: Benefits of recycling water in semiconductor fabs. Semiconductor International, (February 1998): 71-76. (Not available online).
Source: SEMATECH
URL:

Ultrapure Water: Rewards of Recycling
Abstract: Benefits of recycling water in semiconductor fabs. Semiconductor International, (February 1998): 71-76. (Not available online).
Source: SEMATECH
URL:

Uses and Air Emissions of Liquid PFC Heat Transfer Fluids from the Electronics Sector [PDF]
Abstract: EPA's technical report describes perfluorinated carbon (PFC) based heat transfer fluids, their common uses in electronics manufacturing, and estimates emissions to the atmosphere. The heat transfer fluids discussed here are powerful greenhouse gases, often thousands of times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2), and once released to the atmosphere are estimated to persist for more than two thousand years. (PDF)
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://www.epa.gov/semiconductor-pfc/documents/pfc_heat_tran
fer_fluid_emission.pdf


- Chapter -    Top of Page

Intel: Survival of the Fastest [PDF]
Abstract: Appendix D describes Intel's business strategies and performance improvements in semi-conductor innovation.
Source: RAND Corporation
URL: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1068/MR1068.app
d.pdf


- Other resources -    Top of Page

First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel)
Abstract: Excel spreadsheet of energy uses for industry sectors - national and regional data.
Source: Excel File (PPRC)
URL: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mecs/mecs2002/data02/excel/table
1.1_02.xls

LSI Logic - Green Permit Annual Report [PDF]
Abstract: Strategies used by LSI Logic to reduce chemical use and waste in semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: LSI Logic Corporation
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/32/31063/lsi2001annualreport.
pdf

LSI Logic - Green Permit Annual Report [PDF]
Abstract: Strategies used by LSI Logic to reduce chemical use and waste in semiconductor manufacturing.
Source: LSI Logic Corporation
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/32/31063/lsi2001annualreport.
pdf

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
Abstract: Final standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing semiconductor manufacturing operations located at major sources of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP).
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-AIR/2003/May/Day-22/a5519.ht
m


- Periodical -    Top of Page

Forth-Rite Technologies, LLC
Abstract: This news archive has articles from Forth-Rite Technologies, LLC.
Source: Forth-Rite Technologies, LLC
URL: http://www.forth-rite.com/newsarchive.cfm


- Proceedings -    Top of Page

[PDF] SF6 Emission Reduction: What Taiwan is Doing [PDF]
Abstract: Presentation on efforts in Taiwan, to reduce SF6 emissions.
Source: Industrial Technology Research Institute
URL: http://www.epa.gov/electricpower-sf6/documents/conf06_lu.pdf

Chemical Management Services (CMS): A New Strategy for Pollution Prevention [PDF]
Abstract: [Presentation] Gives an example and benefits of a chemical management system at a semiconductor fab. By Clauusen, J.
Source: Chemical Strategies Partnership
URL: http://165.235.111.242/PollutionPrevention/upload/P2_FLY_Che
mical_Management.pdf

SB14 Update and Semiconductor Industry SB14 Findings [PDF]
Abstract: Presentation listing numerous water, chemical, and other environmental improvements by California semiconductor companies. (By Briones, R).
Source: California Department of Toxic Substances Control
URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/P2_FLY_SB1
4_Update.pdf

SB14 Update and Semiconductor Industry SB14 Findings [PDF]
Abstract: Presentation listing numerous water, chemical, and other environmental improvements by California semiconductor companies. (By Briones, R).
Source: California Department of Toxic Substances Control
URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/P2_FLY_SB1
4_Update.pdf

UltraPure Water Recycle Strategy [PDF]
Abstract: Presentation discusses Texas Instruments water reuse and recycling strategies which save the company 263 million gallons of water per year. by John DeGenova.
Source: Semiconductor Environmental, Safety and Health Association
URL: http://seshaonline.org/proceedings00/degenovajohn.pdf

Waste Minimization: Is it Cost Effective During Decommissioning and Decontamination? [PDF]
Abstract: Presentation showing some of the recycling and waste minimization opportunities when decommissioning a fab. By Belk, B.
Source: SESHA/DTSC Joint Pollution Prevention Mini-Conference
URL: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/PollutionPrevention/upload/P2_FLY_Dec
ommissioning.pdf

Water Usage Reduction in a Semiconductor Fabricator (Abstract Only)
Abstract: Actual (by Klusewitz & Veigh) article describes methodology and results to reduce the ultra pure water usage in the Fairchild Mountaintop 6" fab.
Source: Congrès ACMS 2002
URL: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15852738


- Web site -    Top of Page

Energy Efficient Cleanroom Information Site -- A Technical Perspective
Abstract: Opportunities to reduce energy consumption by half, save processing water, and minimize use of hazardous chemicals by applying state-of-the-art resource-efficiency techniques to silicon production and semiconductor fabrication facilities.
Source: Lawrence Berkely Lab
URL: http://ateam.lbl.gov/cleanroom/technical.html

Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract: A multi-university research center leading the way to environmentally friendly semiconductor manufacturing -- several thrust research areas to reduce energy, water, chemicals, and waste and emissions.
Source: National Science Foundation and the Semiconductor Research Corporation
URL: http://www.erc.arizona.edu/

From Sand to Circuits
Abstract: Information about the making of silicon chips.
Source: Intel
URL: http://www.intel.com/about/companyinfo/museum/exhibits/sandt
ocircuits/index.htm

Green Permits
Abstract: As part of the Green Permits program, Oregon DEQ has issued six Green Environmental Management Systems (GEMS) Achiever Permits. This website includes documentation for each permittee.
Source: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://www.deq.state.or.us/programs/sustainability/GreenPerm
its/appspermitsreports.htm

High GWP Gases and Climate Change
Abstract: High global warming potential (GWP) gases are emitted from a broad range of industrial sources and for more of these gases there are few (if any) natural sources of emissions.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/highgwp/scientific.html

International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative
Abstract: ISMI is a global alliance of the world's major semiconductor manufacturers, dedicated to reducing cost per wafer, and ultimately cost per die, through cooperative programs focused on manufacturing effectiveness.
Source: SEMATECH
URL: http://ismi.sematech.org

PFC Reduction / Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry
Abstract: EPA's PFC Reduction/Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry supports the industry's voluntary efforts to reduce high global warming potential (GWP) greenhouse gas emissions by following a pollution prevention strategy.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://www.epa.gov/semiconductor-pfc/

SIC 3674: Semiconductors and Related Devices
Abstract: This category covers establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing semiconductors and related solid-state devices. Important products of this industry are semiconductor diodes and stacks, including rectifiers, integrated microcircuits (semiconductor networks), transistors, solar cells, and light sensing and emitting semiconductor (solid-state) devices.
Source: Encyclopedia of Business
URL: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/industries/Electronic-Eq
uipment-Components/Semiconductors-Related-Devices.html

TRI Chemicals
Abstract: The current TRI toxic chemical list contains 581 individually listed chemicals and 30 chemical categories.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www2.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program

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